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Ukuqaliswa kokuqala kwezichumiso zenitrogen (N) ngezityalo

Izichumisi ze-nitrojeni kunye nenkqubo yokwenza iprotheni kwindalo

– Isichumiso se-nitrogen ligama eliqhelekileyo lezichumisi ezingaphiliyo ezibonelela nge-macronutrient N kwizityalo. Esi sisithako esibaluleke kakhulu kwezolimo.

– Isondlo se isichumiso senitrogen ikalwe ngu % Isiqulatho senitrogen kwisichumiso ngasinye.

– Uninzi lwezityalo azikwazi ukudibanisa i-nitrogen ye-elemental ngendlela yegesi ye-N2, kodwa ngokukodwa kwi-nitrate salts. HAYI3– kunye ne-ammonium NH4 +

Ukuguqulwa kwe-N2 ukuya kwi-NH3

+ Indlela yekhemikhali

N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3

Iimeko: Ubushushu: 2000oC – 200 atm uxinzelelo ludla ngokubakho kwimozulu yendudumo enombane

Le nkqubo ikwashwankathelwa kwezi ngoma zesintu zimbini zilandelayo: Imibhobho yerayisi iphuma elunxwemeni- Nanini na isiva iindudumo ziphephezelisa iflegi, ziyenyuka.

Izityalo zifunxa kuphela malunga ne-40% yesiqulatho se-nitrogen kwizichumisi, okunye kuyakhukuliswa kwaye kuguquke.

Umsebenzi kunye nendima yezichumisi zeNitrogen (N) kwizityalo

I-Nitrogen sisondlo esibalulekileyo kwaye sibaluleke kakhulu kwizityalo. Iyinxalenye ebalulekileyo ye-organic matter eyenza i-chlorophyll, iprotoplasm, i-nucleic acid, iprotheni.

– Ukuchunyiswa kwe-nitrogen kukhuthaza ukukhula komthi, ukwenza umthi ube namasebe, ube namasebe, kunye namagqabi; amagqabi amakhulu, aluhlaza; ishiya iphotosynthesis eyomeleleyo, ngaloo ndlela inyusa isivuno sezityalo

– Ukuphucula umgangatho wemifuno enamagqabi, ifula yefula kunye neprotein yeecereal.

– Izichumisi zeNitrojeni ziyafuneka kwizityalo kulo lonke ixesha lokukhula, ngakumbi ixesha lokukhula olomeleleyo. Phakathi kwamaqela ezityalo ze-nitrogen zibalulekile kwizityalo ezinamagqabi ezifana nemifuno, iklabishi, njl.
(ngokwe wikipedia)

umjikelo nitrogen

Iimpawu zokunqongophala kwenitrogen okanye ubuninzi bezityalo

Xa ukunqongophala kweprotheyini: Ukukhula kwesetyana kubi, amagqabi amancinci mancinci, amagqabi amadala alula ukuwa, iingcambu zikhula kancinci, zibonakala ziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ukuya kumthubi oluhlaza kumagqabi amadala, ukuqala kwincam yegqabi. Xa kukho ukungabikho okukhulu kweentyatyambo, inani leentyatyambo liyancipha kakhulu, isivuno siphantsi, kwaye umxholo weprotheyini uphantsi.

Ukuba uneprotheyini eninzi: Izityalo zikhula ngamandla, zinqanda ukudubula kweentyatyambo, amagqabi achumileyo, amagqabi abhityileyo, imithi ebuthathaka iwela ngokulula, kulula ukuhlaselwa zizinambuzane ezitshabalalisayo.

Isikali sokuvavanya umxholo wenitrogen emhlabeni

Lo ngumlinganiselo womgangatho, ubungakanani benitrogen ekhoyo emhlabeni, buchaphazela ngqo ukukhula nophuhliso lwezityalo.

Kuhlobo ngalunye lwesityalo, isixa senitrogen esifunekayo sahlukile, ngoko ke ngokusekwe kwisikali, siyazi ukuba kufuneka sihlengahlengise isixa senitrogen ukuze silungele isityalo.

– Isichumiso senitrogen esipheleleyo (N%): Kubalwa ngesixa sisonke senitrogen ephilayo kunye ne-inorganic emhlabeni

Indlela kaKjeldahl yokuhlalutya

+ Umhlaba ombi: < 0.1%

+ I-avareji: 0.1 – 0.15%

+ Okuhle: 0.15 – 0.2%

+ Isityebi: > 0.2%

-Iprotein egaywa lula: iprotein ye-inorganic (NO3NCINCI4+)

Iprotheyini eHydrolyzed (ENCINCI)4+), iyunithi ngu-mg/100gr

Indlela yokuhlalutya kweChiurin-Kononova

+ Umhlaba ombi: <4 mg/100gr

+ Phakathi: 4 -8

+ Isityebi: > 8

Izichumisi ezineNitrogen (N) kwimarike namhlanje.

– Isichumiso se-Urea sine-44 – 48% ye-N ecocekileyo (Uhlobo oluqhelekileyo yi-46% ye-N)

– Olu hlobo lwesichumiso lubalelwa kwi-59% yezichumiso zenitrogen zizonke eziveliswa kumazwe kwihlabathi jikelele.

– IUrea sisichumiso esinomlinganiselo ophezulu weN.

Iprotheyini ye-Urea enamafu (i-Urea yesiphukuphuku) kunye neProtheyini encinci ye-Urea yeGrain

– Uhlobo lwekristale emhlophe, i-granules ejikelezileyo, i-soluble ngokulula emanzini, ine-disadvantage ye-hygroscopicity eqinile.

– Kukho iifom ze-2 zeepilisi: Kukho ezincinci ezifana ne-caviar, ezicacileyo; kukho iintlobo ezinkulu ze-opaque (iprotheni yesilika).
ummangaliso

– Iqokobhe lembewu yeprotheyini yongeze i-agent-proofing agent, ngoko kulula ukuyigcina kunye nokuthutha, ngoko isetyenziswa kakhulu kwimveliso yezolimo.

– Isichumiso seUrea sinokuguquguquka okubanzi kwaye siyakwazi ukukhuthaza iziphumo kwiintlobo ezininzi ezahlukeneyo zomhlaba (kuba asitshintshi i-acidity-base yomhlaba) kunye nezityalo ezahlukeneyo. Esi sichumiso siwulungele umhlaba oneasidi.

– Isichumiso seUrea sisetyenziselwa ukugquma phezulu. Inokuhlanjululwa ibe yi-0.5 – 1.5% yokutshiza emagqabini.

– Lo mgquba kufuneka ugcinwe ngononophelo kwisikhwama se-polyethylene kwaye ungabekwa elangeni. Kuba xa ibekwe emoyeni nasekukhanyeni kwelanga, iUrea kulula ukubola ize ibe ngumphunga. Iingxowa ze-Urea, xa zivuliwe, kufuneka zisetyenziswe ngexesha elifutshane.

– Ngexesha lenkqubo yokuvelisa, i-Urea ihlala idibanisa izinto kunye zenza i-biurat. Inetyhefu kwizityalo. Ngoko ke, kwisichumiso se-urea, akufanele kubekho ngaphezu kwe-1.2% ye-biurat yezityalo eziphakamileyo, i-5% yerayisi emanzi.

  • Ezinye iimveliso zeprotheyini ye-urea

+ Urea Phu Isichumiso sam senitrogen (imbewu encinci – Izichumisi kunye neekhemikhali zepetroleum)

+ Isichumiso senitrogen seHebei Urea (imbewu encinci)

+ Ninh Binh Urea isichumiso senitrogen (imbewu encinci – iVietnam Chemical Corporation)

+ Ca Mau Urea nitrogen fertilizer (imbewu enkulu-ioyile yaseCa Mau kunye nesichumiso segesi)

+ Izichumisi zenitrogen ezingenisiweyo: ikakhulu iUrea yaseTshayina

– Ezi ziityuwa zeammonium: ZINNCINCI4I-Cl (25% yeNitrojeni), (ENCINCI4)2SO4 (i-21% ye-Nitrogen), ENCINANE4HAYI3(Amagqabi amabini eprotheni: 35% yeNitrogen),…

– Xa inyibilika emanzini, i-ammonium i-hydrolyzed ukudala indawo ene-acidic, ngoko ifanelekile kuphela xa ugalela esi sichumisi kwimihlaba engaphantsi kwe-acidic, okanye imihlaba esele i-deacidified kwangaphambili nge-lime (CaO).

I-Ammonium Chloride – ENCINCI4ClPhantom ammonium chloride

Lo mgquba une-24 – 25% ye-N ecocekileyo.

I-Ammonium Chloride Protein Powder kunye ne-Shredded Ammonium Chloride Protein

– Iprotein chloride inohlobo lweekristale ezintle, ezimhlophe okanye ezityheli zendlovu.

– Luhlobo lwesichumiso somzimba omuncu. Ngoko ke, isichumisi kufuneka zidibaniswe ne-phosphorus kunye nezinye izichumisi.

– I-nitrogen chloride akufanele isetyenziswe ukuchumisa icuba, iti, iitapile, itswele, igalikhi, ikhaphetshu, isesame, njl.

– Kwiindawo ezomileyo, kumhlaba we-saline, izichumisi ze-nitrogen chloride akufanele zisetyenziswe, kuba kwezi ndawo zininzi zeklorini zingaqokelelwa emhlabeni, ezinokuthi zenze izityalo zibe netyhefu ngokulula.

– IVietnam ayinaso isityalo sokusebenzisa i-ammonium chloride, ngokukodwa iimveliso zithunyelwa eChina.

+ I-Ammonium Sulphate – (ENCINCI4)2SO4 (iprotheyini ye-SA)

i-ammonium sulphate

– Ikwabizwa ngokuba sisichumiso soMzantsi Afrika. Iprotheni yesulfate iqulethe i-20 – 21% ecocekileyo ye-N. Kulo mgquba kwakhona 23-24% isulfure (S). Ehlabathini, olu hlobo lwesichumisi lubalelwa kwi-8% yesixa esipheleleyo sezichumisi zekhemikhali eziveliswa ngonyaka.

Iprotheyini emhlophe yoMzantsi Afrika kunye nentyatyambo yeapricot SA (ENCINCI)4)2SO4/Amon Sulfate

– Nitrogen sulfate sisichumisi esilungileyo kuba iqulethe zombini iN kunye nesulfure ezizizondlo ezibini eziyimfuneko kwizityalo.

– Inokuchunyiswa kuzo zonke izityalo, kwiindidi ezininzi ezahlukeneyo zomhlaba, ukuba umhlaba ungeyo alum okanye umuncu. Ukuba umhlaba uneasidi, kuyafuneka ukuba ugalele ikalika kunye nephosphorus ukuze usebenzise iAmmonium Sulfate nitrogen. Esi sichumiso silungile kwizityalo ezikhula kumhlaba onenduli, kumhlaba ongachumiyo (ukunqongophala kwe-S).

– Initrogen yeSulfate isetyenziswa ngokukodwa ukuchumisa izityalo ezidinga i-S eninzi kunye ne-N encinci njengeembotyi, amandongomane, njl. kunye namaphiko adinga i-S kunye ne-N eninzi njengombona.

– Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba i-nitrogen ye-sulfate isichumisi esisebenza ngokukhawuleza, ngokukhawuleza ikhuthaza iziphumo zayo kwizityalo, ngoko ke isetyenziselwa ukuchumisa kwaye isebenzise amaxesha amaninzi ukuphepha ukulahleka kwe-nitrogen.

– Xa uchumisa izithole, kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba esi sichumisi kulula ukutshisa amaqabunga.

• Musa ukusebenzisa isichumiso senitrogen yesulfate ukuchumisa kumhlaba onealkaline, kuba isichumiso senza umhlaba ube neasidi ngakumbi.

– IVietnam ayinayo imveliso yeprotheyini ye-SA, ikakhulu iimveliso zithunyelwa eChina.

  • Iprotheni ye-ammonium nitrate

    i-ammonium nitrate yesichumiso senitrogen

Iqulethe iityuwa zenitrate ezifana ne: NaNO3Ca(NO3)2

Iisampulu zeSodium Nitrate (NaNO3)

Ezi tyuwa zilungiswa kwi-nitric acid kunye ne-metal carbonates, ngokulandelanayo.

– Eyona pesenti ye-N iphantsi. Izichumisi ze-nitrogen zihlala zisetyenziselwa umhlaba oneasidi kunye netyuwa.

I-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) isampulu yesitulo

– Isichumiso se-Ammonium Nitrate sine-33 – 35% ye-N ecocekileyo. Kumazwe kwihlabathi jikelele, olu hlobo lwesichumiso lubalelwa kwi-11% yesichumiso sisonke senitrogen esiveliswa ngonyaka.

– Luhlobo lwesichumiso somzimba omuncu.

– Nangona kunjalo, esi sichumiso esixabisekileyo kuba siqulethe ENTINCI4+ kunye NO3Esi sichumiso sinokuchumisa izityalo ezininzi kwiindidi ezininzi ezahlukeneyo zomhlaba.

– Esi sichumisi sisetyenziselwa ukwenza isisombululo sesondlo sokunkcenkceshela izityalo kwiindawo zokugcina izityalo kunye nokuchumisa iintlobo ezininzi zemifuno kunye nemithi yeziqhamo.

– IVietnam ayinayo isityalo sokulungisa isichumiso se-nitrogen. I-Nitorate yinto ekrwada yokuvelisa kunye nokulungiswa kweziqhushumbisi (iziqhushumbisi), ngoko ke ukuthengiswa kweemveliso ze-nitrate kuncinci kwaye kulawulwa ngokungqongqo.

Izinto ekufuneka uziqwalasele xa usebenzisa izichumisi zenitrogen

Kwilizwe lethu, kukho iintlobo ezintathu zezichumiso ze-nitrogen ezisetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo, ezizezi: urea, ammonium sulphate kunye ne-ammonium phosphate. Xa isetyenziswe ngokufanelekileyo, i-1 kg ye-N ecocekileyo inokukhupha i-10-22 kg ye-paddy okanye i-25-35 kg yembewu yombona. Ukuqinisekisa ukusetyenziswa okusebenzayo kwezichumisi zeekhemikhali, kuyimfuneko ukunikela ingqalelo kula manqaku alandelayo:

  • Ilindle kufuneka ligcinwe kwiingxowa zeplastiki. Indawo yokugcina umgquba kufuneka ipholile, yome, kwaye uphahla lwesitora kufuneka lungavuzi. Musa ukufaka izichumisi zenitrogen kunye nezinye izichumisi.

  • Kuyimfuneko ukuchumisa iimpawu ezifanelekileyo kunye neemfuno zezityalo. Imithi ineempawu ezahlukileyo kakhulu. Iimfuno zezityalo ze-N nazo ziyahluka ngokubanzi. Kukho imithi efuna iN eninzi, kukho imithi efuna kancinci. Ukuba ufaka i-N kakhulu, ukugqithisa iimfuno zesityalo, i-N nayo ibangela umonakalo omkhulu. Chuba ngokweemfuno zesityalo, iN isebenza kakuhle kakhulu.

  • Kuyimfuneko ukufaka isichumiso esifanelekileyo ngokweempawu zomthi kunye nomhlaba.
    Kwizityalo zasemhlabeni ezifana: nombona, ummoba, umqhaphu njl. Isichumisi se-nitrogen sifanelekile, kodwa irayisi emanzi, kuyacetyiswa ukuba usebenzise i-nitrogen chloride okanye i-SA.
    Kwimidumba, initrogen kufuneka igalelwe kwangethuba, phambi kokuba amaqhuqhuva enziwe ezingcanjini. Xa kukho amaqhuqhuva kwiingcambu, i-nitrogen ayifanele isetyenziswe, kuba i-nitrogen iphazamisa ukulungiswa kwe-nitrogen emoyeni ngamabhaktheriya angama-nodular.

  • Kufuneka kugalelwe initrogen ngokuhambelana neempawu zomhlaba:

Izichumisi zealkaline kufuneka zigalelwe kumhlaba oneasidi. Izichumiso zePhysiologically acidic kufuneka zigalelwe kumhlaba one alkaline. Umhlaba onodaka, onodaka awufuni sichumiso senitrogen.

  1. Kufuneka kugalelwe initrogen ngexesha elifanelekileyo. Kungcono ukuchumisa ngexesha lokukhula okunamandla kwesityalo.

  2. Kufuneka kugalelwe initrogen kwidosi efanelekileyo kunye nokulinganisela kunye ne-phosphorus kunye ne-potassium.

  3. Ukufakwa kwesichumisi se-nitrogen kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo utshintsho lwemozulu. Ungafaki isichumiso xa kune imvula enkulu, xa amasimi ezele ngamanzi.

  4. Musa ukugxila kwisichumisi se-nitrogen ngexesha elinye, kwindawo enye, kodwa kufuneka ulwahlule ngamaxesha amaninzi ukuze uchumise kwaye usasaze isichumisi ngokulinganayo emhlabeni kwindawo apho kufuneka ifakwe khona. Musa ukufaka initrogen eninzi kakhulu. Ngenxa yokuba xa kukho i-nitrogen engaphezulu, umthi ukhula ngamandla, ukuwa lula, ukucotha kweentyatyambo, iimbewu ezimbalwa, imbewu eninzi ecaba, iziqhamo ezilula ukuwa, izinambuzane ezininzi kunye nezifo, ukunciphisa umgangatho weziqhamo. Ukuchitha imali ukuthenga izichumisi zenitrogen ngaphandle kokufumana naziphi na iziphumo, kubangela inkcitho.

  5. Ukuchumisa ngenitrogen kufuneka kudityaniswe nokuhlakula, ukuhlakula, kunye ne-mulching (kwirayisi).

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