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Umgquba ngumgquba oveliswa yimfuyo. Umgquba ngumxube we: umgquba, umchamo wenkomo kunye nesithako. Ayiboneleli nje ngokutya kwezityalo, kodwa yongeza izinto eziphilayo emhlabeni ukunceda umhlaba ukuba ukhululeke, ukwandisa ukuchuma, ukwandisa ukusebenza kakuhle kokusetyenziswa kwemichiza yesichumisi…


I-avareji yesixa somgquba oveliswa ziinkomo ngonyaka om-1:

Ngokomyinge, inkomo nganye egcinwe eshedini, emva konyaka ngamnye, inokubonelela ngesixa silandelayo somgquba (kuquka nenkunkuma):





Ihagu

1.8 – 2.0 iitoni/intloko/ngonyaka

Ibhokhwe

0.8 – 0.9 iitoni / intloko / ngonyaka

Iinkomo

8.0 – 9.0 iitoni/intloko/ngonyaka

Ihashe

6.0 – 7.0 iitoni/intloko/ngonyaka


Isiqulatho seeminerali eziphilayo kumgquba:

Umgangatho kunye nexabiso lomgquba lixhomekeke kakhulu kwindlela okhathalelwa ngayo, okhuliswe ngayo, olahlwayo kunye ne-compost.

Umgquba olungileyo uhlala unezondlo zezityalo njengoko kubonisiwe kolu luhlu lulandelayo:

+ Ukwakhiwa kwe-macronutrient yomgquba:

Iyunithi %







Uhlobo lomgquba

H2O

ABAFAZI

P2O5

KY2O

Phezulu

MgO

Ihagu

82.0

0.80

0.41

0.26

0.09

0.10

Iinkomo

83.1

0.29

0.17

1.00

0.35

0.13

Ihashe

75.7

0.44

0.35

0.35

0.15

0.12

Inkukhu

56.0

1.63

1.54

0.85

2.40

0.74

Idada

56.0

1.00

1.40

0.62

1.70

0.35

+ Ukwakhiwa kweMicronutrient kumgquba:

Kwiitoni ezili-10 zomgquba, ezinye izinto zokulandelela zinokususwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:



Bo: 50 – 200 g;

Mn: 500 – 2000 g;

Co: 2 – 10 g

Cu: 50 – 150 g;

I-Zn: 200 – 1000 g;

Mo: 2 – 25 g


Ukunyangwa komgquba phambi kokusetyenziswa entsimini:


+ Iikheji ezikhuselweyo: Umgangatho wesibaya unesiphumo sokugcina ubushushu, ukudala iimeko ezomileyo kwiinkomo, kunye nokunyusa umthamo womgquba. Ngoko ke, umgquba kufuneka ube nefuthe lokufunxa amanzi alindle, umchamo, ukugcina initrogen kunye nokwandisa umthamo kunye nomgangatho womgquba. Kuyimfuneko ukuba ukhethe i-litter elungileyo kwaye uqhube i-litter ngokucophelela.

Abalimi basoloko besebenzisa iindiza, amagqabi emidumba, izityalo zomgquba oluhlaza, amagqabi, ifula… ukwenza umgquba.


+ Ukwenza umgquba: Ngumlinganiselo oyimfuneko phambi kokuzisa umgquba wokuchumisa intsimi. Kuba kumgquba omtsha, kukho imbewu eninzi yokhula, iipupae zezinambuzane ezininzi, izinambuzane ezininzi, umngundo oleleyo, i-actinomycetes, ibhaktheriya kunye ne-nematodes ebangela izifo. Umgquba unesiphumo sokusebenzisa amaqondo obushushu aphezulu kakhulu kwinkqubo yokubola kwe-organic matter ukutshabalalisa imbewu yokhula kunye nezinambuzane, izifo zezityalo, nokukhuthaza ukubola kwe-organic matter, kukhawulezisa inkqubo yokuvundisa.mineralization ukuze xa igalelwe emhlabeni. , izichumisi eziphilayo zinokubonelela ngokukhawuleza izondlo kwizityalo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kumgquba omtsha, umlinganiselo we-C / N uphezulu, okuyimeko efanelekileyo ye-microorganisms ukubola izinto eziphilayo kwizigaba zokuqala zomsebenzi onamandla. Ziya kusebenzisa izondlo ezininzi, ngoko ke ziyakwazi ukukhuphisana ngezondlo nesityalo.

Umgquba wehlisa ubunzima bomgquba, kodwa umgangatho womgquba uyenyuka. Ukuphela kwemveliso yenkqubo ye-compost yi-organic fertilizer ebizwa ngokuba yi-compost, equkethe i-humus, inxalenye ye-organic matter engaxutywanga, i-salts ye-mineral, imveliso ephakathi yokubola, ezinye i-enzymes, i-stimulants kunye neentlobo ezininzi ze-saprophytic.

Kwimozulu yeTropiki kwilizwe lethu elinomswakama ophezulu, ukukhanya kwelanga okuninzi, ubushushu obuphezulu, inkqubo yokubola kwezinto eziphilayo yenzeka ngokukhawuleza … Ukusebenzisa umgquba owenziwe nge-semi-decomposed kuyona nto ingcono, kuba ngenxa yokuba i-composting yexesha elide iya kulahleka. initrogen eninzi.

Umgangatho kunye nobungakanani bomgquba buyohluka kakhulu ngokuxhomekeke kwixesha kunye nendlela yokwenza umgquba. Ixesha kunye nendlela yokwenza umgquba kuchaphazela ukubunjwa kunye nomsebenzi we-microbial community ebolisa kwaye iguqule i-organic matter ibe yi-humus, ngaloo ndlela ichaphazela umgangatho kunye nomthamo we-compost.

Ukuqinisekisa ukuba iinkqubo ze-microbial ziqhutywa ngokufanelekileyo, indawo yokubumba i-compost kufuneka ibe ne-ingressable, indawo ephakamileyo, ukuphepha amanzi emvula amileyo. Iingqumba ze-compost kufuneka zigqunywe emvuleni kwaye zithintele ilahleko yenitrogen. Ecaleni kwendawo yokwenza umgquba, kufuneka kubekho umngxuma wokugcina amanzi kwi-isomere ephumayo. Sebenzisa amanzi amdaka kulo mngxuma ukuphinda unkcenkceshele imfumba yomgquba ukugcina ukufuma okuyimfuneko, udala iimeko ezilungeleyo ukuba iqela lee microorganisms lisebenze.


2. Iindlela zokwenziwa komgquba

Kukho iindlela ezi-3 zokwenza umgquba:


  • Indlela yokufudumala eshushu:

Xa umgquba ususiwe eshedini ukuze kufakwe umgquba, umgquba ubekwe ngokwemigangatho apho kukho i-substrate engangeni manzi, kodwa ingadityaniswanga. Emva koko nkcenkceshela umgquba, gcina ukufuma kwimfumba ye-compost 60 – 70%. I-1% eyongezelelweyo inokuxutywa nomgubo (ngokobunzima) kwimeko yomgquba onezinto ezininzi zokuzalisa. Xuba i-1 – 2% ye-superphosphate ukugcina initrogen. Emva koko beka udaka ngaphandle kwemfumba. Nkcenkceshela ingqumba yomgquba yonke imihla.

Emva kweentsuku ezi-4-6, ubushushu kwimfumba yomgquba bunokufikelela kuma-60oC. Iimicroorganisms eziqhekeza izinto eziphilayo zikhula ngokukhawuleza kwaye zinamandla. I-Aerobic microorganisms zihamba phambili. Ngenxa yomsebenzi onamandla we-microorganisms, iqondo lokushisa kwimfumba yomgquba landa ngokukhawuleza kwaye lifikelela kwinqanaba eliphezulu. Ukuqinisekisa ukuba ii-microorganisms ze-aerobic zisebenza kakuhle, kuyimfuneko ukugcina i-compost pile ikhululekile, i-porous kunye ne-airy.

Indlela yokufukamela eshushu inefuthe elihle ekubulaleni imbewu yokhula, isusa iintsholongwane zezinambuzane. Ixesha lokufukamela lifutshane. Kuphela iintsuku ezingama-30-40 zigqityiwe ukuvundisa, i-compost ingasetyenziswa. Nangona kunjalo, le ndlela inenzuzo yokulahlekelwa yiprotheni eninzi.


  • Indlela yokushisa okubandayo:

Umgquba uyasuswa eshedini, wolulwe kwaye udityaniswe. Kumaleko ngamnye womgquba, fafaza i-2% yesichumiso sephosphate. Emva koko wufukame umhlaba owenziwe ngumgubo okanye udaka olomileyo, wucofe, uze ugawule. Ngokuqhelekileyo iimfumba zomgquba zicwangciswe ngobubanzi obuyi-2 – 3 m, ubude buxhomekeke kubude bomhlaba. Iingqimba zomgquba zicwangciswe ngokulandelelana kude kube ukuphakama kwe-1.5 – 2.0 m. Emva koko beka udaka ngaphandle.

Ngenxa yokuxinana, ingaphakathi lengqumba yomgquba ayinayo ioksijini, okusingqongileyo kuba yi-anaerobic, icarbon dioxide kwimfumba yomgquba iyanda. Iintsholongwane zisebenza ngokucothayo, ngoko ke iqondo lobushushu kwingqumba yomgquba alinyuki liye kutsho kuma-30-35oC. Initrogen ekwimfumba yomgquba ikwimo yeammonium carbonate, ekunzima ukuyiqhekeza ibe yiammonia, ngoko ke ubungakanani beprotheyini elahlekileyo buyancipha kakhulu.

Ngokwale ndlela, ixesha lokuvundisa kufuneka lihlale iinyanga ezi-5-6 phambi kokuba kusetyenziswe umgquba. Kodwa umgquba unomgangatho ongcono kune-compost eshushu.


  • Indlela yokufunxa kushushu kuqala, kuphole emva kokuba:

Umgquba uyakhutshwa kwaye ubekwe kwiileya ezingadityaniswanga ngoko nangoko. Yiyeke kangangeentsuku ezi-5 ukuya kwezi-6 ukuze ii-microorganisms zisebenze. Xa iqondo lobushushu lifikelela ku 50 – 60oC, ukuxinana kuyenziwa ukuze kuguqulwe imfumba yomgquba ibekwimeko ye-anaerobic.

Emva kokudibanisa, beka omnye umaleko womgquba phezulu, musa ukubumbana. Shiya iintsuku ezi-5-6 ukuze ii-microorganisms zisebenze. Xa ifikelela kubushushu obuyi-50 – 60oC, iphinda idityaniswe.

Kwaye njalo de kufike ubude obufunekayo, uze ubeke udaka malunga nemfumba ye-compost. Inkqubo yoguqulo kwingqumba yomgquba yenzeka ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: umgquba oshushu uqala ukufunxa umgquba, emva koko utshintshele kwi-compost ebandayo ngokudibanisa umaleko we-compost ukuze i-nitrogen ingalahleki.

Ukukhuthaza ukuvuthwa okukhawulezileyo komgquba kwinqanaba le-compost eshushu, ezinye izichumisi zisetyenziselwa ukwenza igwele elifana nomgquba wasemantla, umgquba wesilika, umgquba wenkukhu kunye namadada, njl njl. ayidityaniswanga.

Ukwenza umgquba ngolu hlobo kungalenza lifutshane ixesha xa kuthelekiswa nomgquba obandayo, kodwa kufuneka kuthathe ixesha elide kunomgquba oshushu.

Ngokuxhomekeke kwixesha apho kukho imfuneko yokusebenzisa umgquba, indlela efanelekileyo yokwenza umgquba kufuneka isetyenziswe kuzo zombini eziqinisekisa ukuba umgquba usetyenziswa ngexesha elifanelekileyo kwaye uqinisekise umgangatho womgquba.

3. Iimpawu zomgquba

Nangona ingasebenzi ngokukhawuleza kwaye ngokukhawuleza njengezichumisi zemichiza, umgquba unemiphumo ekungekho ezinye izichumisi zemichiza. Nangona kunjalo, umgquba unezithintelo ezininzi ekufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo xa usebenzisa.

– Umgquba uhlala uqulethe uluhlu olupheleleyo lwezakhi zesondlo ezifana ne-nitrogen, i-phosphorus, i-potassium, i-calcium, i-magnesium, i-sodium, kunye ne-silicon. Izinto ezilandelwayo ezifana nobhedu, i-zinc, i-manganese, i-molybdenum … umxholo awuphezulu.

– Umgquba unika isixa esikhulu somgquba ukwenza umhlaba ube nemingxuma ngakumbi, iingcambu zesityalo zichume, kwaye wandise isakhono sesityalo sokumelana neemeko ezingentle zangaphandle ezifana nengqele, ukhukuliseko, imbalela … Ngoko ke abantu babiza umgquba njengesichumiso ukuphucula imichiza yomhlaba. – iipropati zomzimba.

– Olunye uncedo lomgquba kukuba abalimi bayakwazi ukuzenzela ngokusekelwe kwiimveliso zolimo zasemva kokuvuna ezifana nezikhondo, amagqabi, neengcambu ezidityaniswe nenkunkuma yesibaya kwimfuyo.

Nangona kunjalo, ukusetyenziswa komgquba nako kunemida njengoko umxholo wezondlo ezityekayo ngokulula ungaphantsi kakhulu kunezichumisi zekhemikhali. Umxholo wenitrogen ecocekileyo kowona mgquba ungcono yi-3-4% kuphela (ngelixa kwi-urea yi-46%). Ke ngoko, xa isetyenzisiwe, kufuneka ichume ngesixa esikhulu kwaye kufuneka idibanise izichumisi ezongezelelweyo kunye nezichumisi zekhemikhali ngamaxesha adinga isityalo.

– Umgquba unesiphumo esicothayo, uthutho olunzima, luxhomekeke kwimfuyo. Ukuba ayilungiswanga ngocoselelo, inokuthwala umngundo owonakalisa izityalo. Ukongezelela, ngenxa yokuvutshelwa, umgquba uqukethe i-asidi ephilayo, ngoko xa isetyenziswe, ukuba ingadibaniswa ne-lime, iya kumuncu umhlaba.

– Abalimi abaninzi basebenzisa umgquba omtsha ukugalela ngethemba lokuba izityalo ziya kuwufunxa. Oku akulunganga kwaphela, kuba umgquba omtsha ngumgquba ongavundisiyo, oqulathe isixa esikhulu sezondlo ezingatyiwayo, ukuba ugalelwe kwizityalo, awunakufunxwa ngoko nangoko kodwa usasaza umngundo kunye nokhula kwizitiya nezityalo. Ngoko ke, xa besebenzisa umgquba, abantu kufuneka basebenzise umgquba obolileyo ukuchumisa.

Umthombo: Ngqokelela yolawulo

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