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Ukuthintela umonakalo kubalimi abakhulisa le mithi yeziqhamo ingentla, sabelana ngeendlela ezithile zokuthintela iimpukane zeziqhamo kwinqaku elilandelayo.

Yintoni iimpukane zeziqhamo?

Iziqhamo ziyaphaphazela

Kwaziwa njenge iziqhamo flyigama lesayensi yi-Bactrocera sp., Bactrocera spp., Bactrocera dorsalis, yosapho lweTephritidae, i-oda iDiptera.

Iimpawu ze-morphological

Ngexesha lemvula, iimpukane zeziqhamo zizala ngamandla kwaye zibangele umonakalo omkhulu kubalimi.

Iqanda: Imilo yengqolowa yerayisi, umbala omhlophe obisi, xa malunga nokuqhakaza ijika ibe tyheli.

Iimpethu: Xa isandula ukuqanduselwa, imalunga ne-1.5mm ubude, ikhule ngokupheleleyo 6-8mm ubude, tyheli oluluthuthu, umlomo ugalelekile. Xa ziphuhliswe ngokupheleleyo, iimpethu ziwela emhlabeni ukuze zivuthele emhlabeni, ixesha le-pupal limalunga neentsuku ezi-7-12 okanye ngaphezulu ukuba kuyabanda. Iimpethu zizala malunga ne-3-7cm ubunzulu emhlabeni.

I-Pupae: I-5-7mm ubude, i-ovoid ende, i-yellow-brown ekuqaleni, bubomvu-bumdaka xa sele iza kuqondwa.

Izinambuzane (iimpukane zabantu abadala): Umzimba buyi-6-9 mm ubude, amaphiko yi-1.3 mm ububanzi, intloko i-hemispherical, umphambili obomvu obomvu kunye namachaphaza abomvu-amnyama ama-6. Umzimba obomvu-mdaka kunye nemithambo emthubi, amaphiko angaphakathi, ayafana ngokumila kodwa amancinci kuneempukane zendlu, asebenzayo emini.

Imibungu ikhona unyaka wonke, iphila iinyanga ezi-1-3 kwaye inamandla okubhabha kakhulu.

Ukubakho kokwenzakala

☑ Iimpukane ezizimazi zisebenzisa imibhobho yazo yokubeka amaqanda ukugqobhoza nzulu kwisikhumba sesiqhamo kwaye emva koko zizalele iqela lamaqanda ama-5-10 (akholisa ukubeka amaqanda kwisiqhamo kwindawo ekudityaniswa kuyo iqokobhe nesiqhamo).

☑ Umqolo wesiqhamo kwindawo yempukane umnyama, uthambile, kwaye unentlaka (ubovu), okudala iimeko zohlaselo lomngundo lubangele ukubola kwesiqhamo kwaye unokuwa okanye uhlale emthini.

☑ Iimpethu ziqandusela kwaye zitye kwisiqhamo. Iziqhamo ezosulelwe ziimpethu zidla ngokusuleleka ziintsholongwane, ngoko ke zibola ngokukhawuleza. Iimpukane zeziqhamo umonakalo ukusuka endala ukuya kwisiqhamo esivuthiweyo.

☑ Iziqhamo ezichatshazelwa ziimpukane zeziqhamo zehlisa ixabiso lentengiso, umgangatho wazo kwaye azikwazi kuthunyelwa kumazwe angaphandle. Kwigadi ye-kumquat, ii-oranges ze-mandarin ezichaphazelekayo zinombala ophuzi ophuzi ojikeleze i-sting. Iziqhamo ezonakeleyo zihlala zibola kwaye ziwe.

☑ Kwiziqhamo zedragoni, iimpukane zishiya amaqanda azo exolweni, iimpethu emva kokuqanduselwa zihlala ngaphakathi kwesiqhamo. Ngelo xesha, uya kubona umphandle weqokobhe ngeenaliti kunye namanzi atyheli.

☑ Kwimithi yegwava, iimpethu ziqandusela kwaye zitye ngaphakathi kwesiqhamo, ngokuya zikhula, kokukhona zingena nzulu ngaphakathi, zibangela ukuba isiqhamo sibole kwaye siwe. Iziqhamo ezonakaliswe kakhulu ziyakuwa zibangele ilahleko yesivuno.

Iimpukane zeziqhamo zonakalisa isiqhamo segwava

Iimpukane zeziqhamo zonakalisa isiqhamo segwava

Ukuqaphela iimpawu

Kuba ulwamvila lwempukane olubeka amaqanda luncinci kakhulu xa luthelekiswa nomngxuma webhore, kunzima ukulubhaqa. Ukuba ujongisisa umphezulu wesiqhamo, unokubona imivumbo, ukuba ukhama isandla sakho, sinamanzi, yimpukane yeziqhamo.

Ukutshatyalaliswa kweempukane zeziqhamo zegwava

☑ Akucetyiswa ukushiya isiqhamo esivuthiweyo emthini ixesha elide ukutsala iimpukane ukufumana isiqhamo sokubeka amaqanda (ngenxa yevumba lesiqhamo) kodwa kufuneka sivunwe kwangethuba.

☑ Kwiziqhamo eziwileyo, kufuneka ziqokelelwe kwaye zingcwatywe nzulu ngomgubo wekalika ukuze kubulawe onke amaqanda, iimpethu neepupa, ukuthintela ukunwenwa kwezi zityalo zilandelayo. Coca isitiya, ugawule imithi ukunciphisa ikhusi lamabhabhathane kunye neempukane zabantu abadala.

☑ Sebenzisa i-Basudin 10H, iRegent 3G okanye iFuradan 3H ukusasaza emazantsi omthi ukubulala amantshontsho asele elele phantsi elindele ukuphuma.

☑ Isebenzisa iVizubon D, iPheromone iyabambisa ukutsala kwaye ibulale iimpukane ezingamadoda ukunqanda ukugcinwa kohlobo lwempukane kakuhle kakhulu (xa iimpukane ezizimazi zibeka amaqanda kodwa zingaqhanyiswa, amaqanda awaqanduselwa kwiimpethu eziyingozi).

Vizubon KULULA

Iimpukane zeziqhamo ziyonakalisa imithi ye-grapefruit kunye ne-orenji

Iimpukane zeziqhamo ziyonakalisa imithi yepomelo

Ukuqaphela iimpawu

Ekuqaleni amachaphaza nje amnyama, emva kokukhula, ajika abe tyheli kwaye abe mdaka ngebala. Baya kwenza itonela encinci ngaphakathi kwesiqhamo, ebangela ukuba isiqhamo sibole.

Ukongezelela, ngokuqwalasela, iziqhamo ziya kutshintshwa kwimilo kunye nombala. Ngumngxuma, iswekile eshushu ethi ibhaktheriya kunye nomngundo zingene ukuze zenze umonakalo kwisiqhamo.

Amanyathelo okunyanga iimpukane zeziqhamo zegrapefruit

1. Ukusebenzisa i-nano oxichloride coupler kunye ne-PVP

Unefuthe lokunyusa izinga lokumelana ne-pomelo peel njenge-membrane egqunywe i-peel, ukunciphisa inani lokukhanya kwelanga elikhanyayo, umonakalo wezinambuzane kunye nezinambuzane. Ukongeza, yenza ukuba i-peel ibe yi-elastic ngakumbi, into ethambileyo ye-peel nayo ilinganiselwe.

nano oxichloride

Izithako: I-Nano copper oxychloride concentration ye-10,000-15,000ppm (10,000-15,000mg / ilitha), i-antioxidant, i-nanoparticle-coated organic matter, amanzi aneleyo adibeneyo.

Indlela yokwenza: Sebenzisa i-Nano yesiliva yobhedu ukutshiza ngokulinganayo kwi-grapefruit, unokutshiza amaxesha ama-2 kwiiveki ezi-2 ngaphandle kokusebenza.

2. Sebenzisa iplastiki ukusonga igrapefruit

Lo ngumlinganiselo webhayoloji onoqoqosho kwaye ungangcolisi okusingqongileyo. Ibhegi inokukunceda uthintele ukuya kuthi ga kwi-90% yohlaselo lweempukane ezityheli, ukunyanga ngokufanelekileyo iimpukane.

Ukuthintela iimpukane zeziqhamo

Indlela yokwenza: Khetha ibhegi enobungakanani obufanelekileyo, enomoya ophakathi, ingabi namoya ukunqanda ukubola kweqokobhe. Inokuqina okufanelekileyo kunye nobukhulu, akukho michiza inobungozi.

Lungisa ububanzi besiqhamo ukuze buhambelane nenqanaba lophuhliso lwepomelo, emva koko usonge de kuvunwe, emva koko uyisuse.

3. Sebenzisa umgibe weempukane

Indlela: Sebenzisa iibhotile zamanzi ezilahliweyo, ucingo lwentsimbi. Sika umngxuma osisikwere kanye ngokufanelekileyo, ugqobhoze umngxuma kwikepusi ukutyhutyha ucingo lwentsimbi.

Emva koko xuba ucingo lwentsimbi kwi-cap kwaye ukhusele enye isiphelo ngokuguqa ekupheleni kocingo. Sebenzisa amanzi afudumeleyo kunye neswekile echithwe ebhotileni. Vala isiciko ngokuqinileyo kwaye usixhome emthini ukwenza umgibe.

Le ndlela ayigcini nje ngokugcina umzamo omkhulu kodwa ikwasebenza kakhulu.

Iimpukane zeziqhamo zonakalisa iziqhamo zemango

Ukuqaphela iimpawu

Ixolo lesiqhamo semango kwindawo yempukane imnyama, ithambile, intlaka evuzayo itsalela izinambuzane kunye nezifo zokungunda ukuba zizalele amaqanda, nto leyo eyenza umonakalo kwisiqhamo siguge kwaye sibole.

Ezo ziqhamo zinokuwa ngaphambi kokuba zivuthwe okanye ziqhubeke zibambelele emthini. Ukuba ishiywe emthini, ixabiso lentengiso liya kuncipha ngenxa yenyama ebolileyo yangaphakathi.

Ukuthintela njani ukubhabha kweziqhamo zemango

1. Amanyathelo oomatshini

☑ Vuna kwangethuba xa isiqhamo sivuthiwe, kufuneka singavuthwa kakhulu ukuthintela iimpukane ezinobungozi kunye nosulelo.

☑ Musa ukulima izityalo ezinomtsalane iimpukane zeziqhamo njengegwava, ipapaya, isitrasi, ilongan… kwigadi yeziqhamo zemango.

☑ Qokelela kwaye utshabalalise (utshise okanye ungcwabe) iziqhamo zemango eziwele emhlabeni nezishiywe emthini emva kokuvuna kuba kulapho kugcinwa khona iimpukane.

2. Fruit fly lure trap

Sebenzisa iibhanana ezivuthiweyo, iiorenji, amapayinapile… axutywe nesibulali-zinambuzane Sec Saigon 5EC, 10EC okanye iSherzol 205EC ukutsala nokubulala iimpukane. Seta 30-100 imigibe/1 ihektare yesitiya.

3. Ukutshiza nge-hydrolyzed protein primer

Ngenxa yokuba iimpukane ezizimazi kufuneka zitye iprotein ukuze zikhule amaqanda, iimpukane zamadoda zivelisa amadlozi, ngoko ke izithiyelo zeprotein zinokusetyenziswa ukubulala iimpukane. Uncedo lweprotein bait spray kukuba umthamo wamanzi atshizwe kwizityalo usezantsi, ukhuselekile kwi-pollinators, umsebenzi omncinci, kwaye ubulala zombini iimpukane eziyindoda nemazi.

Intsalela yeprotheni

Indlela: Xuba i-5 ml ye-Sairifos 585 EC kunye ne-50g yeprotheni ye-hydrolyzed kwi-1 ilitha yamanzi.

Tfutha i-50 ml yalo mxube kwisityalo esinye, utshize indawo nganye, utshize kanye ngeveki ukutsala kwaye ubulale iimpukane.

Ixesha: Tshiza malunga ne-8-10 am, malunga neentsuku ezingama-30 phambi kokuvuna.

4. Ukutsala umdla weempukane zenkunzi ngeepheromones

Iipheromones zizikhompawundi ezinamandla ezinomtsalane ezisetyenziswa zezinye iintlobo ukutsala amaqabane ngaphezu kweemayile ezimbini nangaphezulu. Xa idityaniswe neSairifos 585EC, yenza ikhompawundi esebenzayo yokubulala iimpukane.

Sairifos 585EC

Indlela: Xuba i-Methyl eugenol kunye ne-Sairifos 585EC ngokomlinganiselo we-96: 4, ubeke imigibe ukutsala kunye nokubulala iimpukane zamadoda. Gxila i-1 ml yeyeza kwilaphu okanye umqhaphu kwaye uyifake kwiplastiki okanye kwibhokisi yentsimbi enemingxuma ecaleni ukuze iimpukane eziyindoda zikwazi ukutya iyeza kwaye zife.

5. Imigibe ejingayo

Fruit fly trap

Kunconywa ukuxhoma umgibe emthini kwindawo enomthunzi (ugweme ukukhanya kwelanga ngqo), umoya ococekileyo, kwaye uxhonywe malunga ne-1-2 m ukusuka emhlabeni. Misela imigibe engama-30-60 ngehektare nganye. Emva kweentsuku ezimbalwa, umgibe kufuneka utshintshwe rhoqo emva kweentsuku ezimbalwa ukuze uchole iimpukane ezifileyo kwaye ubeke entsha. Kuyacetyiswa ukuba uqale ukubeka imigibe xa umthi usanda kuvelisa isiqhamo, ngakumbi xa isiqhamo sivuthiwe. Ukubulala iimpukane ngokufanelekileyo, kuyimfuneko ukubeka imigibe emininzi kwinqanaba elikhulu, ngexesha elifanayo kwaye ngokuqhubekayo.

Iimpukane zeziqhamo ziyonakalisa imithi yeziqhamo zedragoni

I-dragon fruit iyabhabha

Ukuqaphela iimpawu

Ukuba ayibonwa kwangethuba yimibungu, iya kubangela ukuba inyama yedragon fruit ibole. Indawo echotshoziweyo inamabala amnyama, idala iimeko zokungunda kunye nezinambuzane eziyingozi ukuba zihlasele. Isiqhamo esingekavuthwa sinokuwa.

Amanyathelo okuphelisa iimpukane zeziqhamo

Sebenzisa imigibe yeempukane zamaxesha onyaka, ngokukodwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

☑ Ixesha lemvula (ukususela ngo-Agasti 2008 ukuya kuNovemba 2008), usebenzisa imveliso ye-Flykil 95 EC, i-dosage yeziyobisi: 1-2 ml / i-trap (ifakwe kwi-cotton swabs exhonywe emgibeni), ixesha lokutshintsha iziyobisi rhoqo kwiiveki ezi-2, ubuninzi: 20 imigibe/ha.

Flykil 95 EC

☑ Ixesha lembalela (ukususela kuDisemba 1, 2008 ukuya kuDisemba 31, 2008), kusetyenziswa imveliso yeSofri Protein 10 DD ukutsala iimpukane, ixesha lokutshiza: qho ngeentsuku ezili-10 ngethamo le-1–1,2 yelitha/isitshizi ngehektare nganye.

Iprotheyini ye-Sofri 10 DD

Lo ngumzekelo osetyenziswe liZiko loPhando kunye noPhuhliso lwe-Dragon Fruit kunye neSebe leCandelo loKhuseleko lweZityalo kwiPhondo laseBinh Thuan, elineziphumo ezingaphezulu kwe-60%. Ukusetyenziswa kwemigibe ukutsala iimpukane zeziqhamo kubaluleke kakhulu njengoko kungashiyi iintsalela zezitshabalalisi kwiimveliso, ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko lokutya kunye neenjongo zococeko.

Iimpukane zeziqhamo zenza umonakalo kwiqela le cucurbits

Ukuqaphela iimpawu

Kubandakanya iicucumber, cucurbits, melon, bittermelon, njl njl.

Kanye kumphandle wetshiseli kukho ichaphaza elimnyama ekuqaleni, emva koko liya kuba tyheli lijike libe mdaka. Ingaphakathi lempethu likrola itonela elijikajikayo, nto leyo ebangela ukuba isiqhamo sibole, sithambe, kwaye kube lula ukuwisa.

Ukuthintelwa kweempukane zeziqhamo kumathanga

☑ Lima umhlaba ukuze wome okanye ufakwe emanzini kangangeentsuku ezimbalwa ukubulala imibungu kunye neepupa.

☑ Coca isitiya, qokelela kwaye utshabalalise isiqhamo esiwileyo kunye neentshulube ezingcwatywe emhadini ngekalika.

☑ Faka indlela yokusonga iziqhamo kwiintsuku ezi-3-4 emva kokuba isiqhamo simisiwe.

☑ Tshaza ukuthintela. Nika ingqalelo kwixesha lokuvalelwa. Tshiza i-Altach 5EC ngokomlinganiselo we-20 ml ukuya kwiilitha ezili-16 zamanzi. Okanye iCyper 25EC 20ml/16 ilitha zamanzi.

Altach 5EC

☑ Xa kukho iimpukane ezininzi ezindala, sebenzisa iHopsan 75EC ukutshiza ebaleni ukugxotha. Indlela yokuxuba i-40ml yeyeza kunye ne-16 ilitha zamanzi.

Hopsan 75EC

Phawula

Amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi akufunekanga atshizwe ngokuthe ngqo kwisiqhamo ukuze abulale iimpethu kuba asoloko engasebenzi kwaye ayikhuselekanga kubasebenzisi.

Iziqhamo ziyaphaphazela ngumba wokuvalelwa kumazwe amaninzi ehlabathini, ngoko ke ekuthumeleni iziqhamo, unyango lwasemva kokuvuna luyimfuneko kakhulu. Ngoko ke, abantu kufuneka bahlawule ngakumbi kwaye bafumane iindlela zokuthintela ezisebenzayo.

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