Nhóm phân hữu cơ – Phần 2: Giới thiệu về phân xanh, phân vi sinh vật | Hatgiongtihon.net

3. Yintoni umgquba oluhlaza?

Umgquba ohlaza sisichumiso esivela kwindalo esiquka iindawo ezingaphezulu komhlaba zesityalo. Umgquba ohlaza usoloko usetyenziswa umtsha, hayi ngenkqubo yokwenza umgquba, ngoko ke umgquba oluhlaza usebenza kuphela emva kokuba ubolile. Ngoko ke, abantu bahlala besebenzisa umgquba oluhlaza ukuchumisa izityalo zonyaka okanye “ukukhama eluhlaza” (ukusuka kwingcambu) kwizityalo ezingapheliyo. Nangona kunjalo, kwezinye iindawo ezikummandla osembindini, umgquba oluhlaza uyanqunyulwa kwaye ugalelwe amasimi erayisi, abizwa ngokuba yi “fertilizer”.

Izityalo zomgquba oluhlaza zidla ngokuba ziimbotyi, kodwa kukwakho nezinye iindidi zezityalo ezizezinye iintsapho ezifana nenyibiba yamanzi, umthi we-anemone, njalo njalo, ezisetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi njengomgquba oluhlaza. Zininzi iindidi zezityalo zomgquba oluhlaza ezilinywa ngamafama ngeenjongo zokusichumisa, kodwa kukwakho nezityalo zasendle ezisetyenziswa njengomgquba oluhlaza. Izityalo eziziimbotyi zihlala zineentsholongwane ze-symbiotic ezihlala kwiingcambu zazo kwaye zincede isityalo sidibanise initrogen emoyeni. Esi sixa senitrogen sinokuthi kamva sibe yinxalenye yezityalo. Izityalo eziziimbotyi ziyakwazi ukufunxa iphosphorus ne potassium engatyiyo kumaleko omhlaba anzulu kunezinye izityalo.

Izityalo zomgquba ohlaza zineentlobo ezininzi kwaye uninzi lwazo zinokuguquguquka okubanzi, zinokukhuliswa kwindawo ezininzi kwaye kunokuthiwa zilinywe naphina. Kwimozulu eshushu, sineqela elityebe kakhulu lezityalo zomgquba oluhlaza. Iimeko zemozulu ezifumileyo, imvula enkulu, ubushushu obuphezulu zenza inkqubo yokuvuza komhlaba kunye nokhukuliseko lwenzeke ngamandla amakhulu, izityalo zomgquba ohlaza zidlala indima enkulu ekulondolozeni nasekuphuculeni umhlaba kwaye zibe negalelo Ekusebenzeni Kakhulu ekwandiseni imveliso yezityalo. izityalo kulula ukukhula, ngokukhawuleza kwaye zomelele. Ukongeza ekusebenziseni izichumisi zezityalo, izityalo zomgquba oluhlaza zikwasetyenziswa njengezityalo zokugquma, imithi yomthunzi, izityalo zokugcina umhlaba ukuthintela ukhukuliseko, izityalo zokuphucula umhlaba, kunye nokuphucula ukuchuma komhlaba.

Iindidi zezityalo zomgquba ezikhuliswe kakhulu kwilizwe lethu yi-Muong, i-Dien Thanh, i-ertyisi, i-acacia, i-stylo grass, i-virgin engenameva….

Uhlalutyo lokwakheka kwezondlo kwiintlobo ezithile zemidumba esetyenziswa njengomgquba oluhlaza lufumene iziphumo njengoko kubonisiwe kwitheyibhile engezantsi.

Izityalo zomgquba ohlaza zinokuguquguquka okukhulu, kodwa ayizizo zonke izityalo ezinokukhuliswa naphi na. Isivuno sezinto eziluhlaza kunye nokukwazi ukukhula kwezityalo kunokwahluka ngokuxhomekeke kumgangatho womhlaba kunye neemeko ezithile kwindawo nganye. Ezinye iintlobo zifanelekile kumasimi erayisi, ezinye iintlobo zifanelekile kwiindawo eziphantsi kweenduli, ezinye zifanelekile kumhlaba oyisanti, ezinye zifanelekile kumaphondo asezantsi, kwaye ezinye zifanelekile kumaphondo asezintabeni ezisenyakatho. …. Ngoko ke, kuyimfuneko, kuyimfuneko. ukukhetha iintlobo ezifanelekileyo kwiimeko zengingqi zokulima ukufumana iziphumo ezilungileyo. Izityalo zomgquba ohlaza nazo zihlala zisebenza kuphela kwizakhiwo ezithile ezinezityalo, ngoko ke kuyimfuneko ukukhetha ubume bezityalo obufanelekileyo ngokokwakheka kwezityalo eziluhlaza ezifanele ukuhluma, ukutyhutyha okanye ukujikeleziswa.

Itheyibhile yesiqulatho senitrogen kunye nephosphorus kwezinye izityalo zomgquba oluhlaza (% dry matter)











Umthi womgquba oluhlaza


Iprotheyini (N)


I-Phosphorus (P2O4)

Incakuba yegqabi ingqukuva

2,740

0.390

Ibha yokuzalisa

2,660

0.280

Iimbotyi zeglue

2,850

0.620

Ithambo lenkawu

2.430

0.270

I-spindle

1.220

0.170

Iimbotyi ezimnyama

1,700

0.320

Imbiza yeentyatyambo zestrawberry

4,750

0.640

Idada

2,800

0.390

Indlela yokusebenzisa umgquba oluhlaza: zininzi iindlela, kodwa ikakhulu ezi ndlela zilandelayo:

– Xa umgquba ohlaza uvelisa iintyatyambo, abantu bawulima emhlabeni, kuba ngeli xesha izityalo zomgquba ohlaza zinesivuno esiphezulu se-biomass, izityalo azinayo imbewu kwaye zivuthulule imbewu emhlabeni ukuze zikhule zibe zizithole, ezithintela isityalo esikhulu. inkonzo elandelayo.

• Sebenzisa umgquba oluhlaza ukuchumisa izityalo xa usenza umhlaba.

– Ukwaziswa kwinkqubo yokujikeleziswa kwezityalo, emva kokutyalwa kwenani lezityalo eziphambili, isityalo somgquba ohlaza sityalwa ukuphucula umhlaba kunye nokuphelisa ezinye izinambuzane kunye nezifo zesityalo esikhulu.

– Iingcambu zeekhabhinethi, i-bed cover, “ikhama eluhlaza” kwizityalo ezingapheliyo.

4. Umgquba weMicrobial

Lawa amalungiselelo aqukethe ii-microorganisms eziluncedo. Kukho amaqela amaninzi ee-microorganisms eziluncedo ezibandakanya ibhaktheriya, i-fungi kunye ne-actinomycetes ezisetyenziselwa ukwenza izichumisi. Phakathi kwazo kukho amaqela abalulekileyo e-microorganisms alungisa i-nitrogen, i-phosphorus enyibilikayo, ibolile into ephilayo, ivuselela ukukhula kwezityalo …

Ukusetyenzwa kwezichumisi ze-microbial, iintlobo ze-microbial zikhuliswa kwaye zanda kwibhubhoratri. Xa ufikelela kugxininiso oluphezulu lweeseli ze-microbial, luxutywa kunye nezongezo kwaye zomiswe kwaye zipakishwe kwiingxowa.

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, kumazwe amaninzi ehlabathini lonke, abantu baye balungelelanisa ukuveliswa kwezichumiso ezithile kwimizi-mveliso ethile baze bazithengise kwiimarike zasekhaya nezamazwe ngamazwe. Nangona kunjalo, izichumisi ze-microbial zisembalwa kakhulu kwaye ziyinxalenye encinci kuphela xa kuthelekiswa nezichumisi zekhemikhali.

Uninzi lweebhaktheriya ezilungisa initrogen zihlala kwi-symbiosis kunye nemifuno. Bangena kwiingcambu zezityalo ezihlala kwi-symbiosis, zenza amaqhuqhuva kwiingcambu; basebenzisa i-organic matter yesityalo ukukhula, kwangaxeshanye bafunxa initrogen esemoyeni ukuze bavelise izityalo, inxalenye yayo iqokelelana emzimbeni wabo. ukusuka emoyeni. Ngokuphawulekayo, kukho iintlobo: i-algae eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka (Cyanobacterium); ibhaktheriya Azotobacter, Bradyrhi-zobium. Rhyzobium; Iintsholongwane ze-Actinomyces, iKlebsiella.

I-algae eluhlaza-luhlaza ngokuhambelana neentyatyambo zamaqunube kwaye ifunxa initrogen eqokelelweyo, yenze iintyatyambo zemulberry zibe nesiqulatho seproteni ephezulu, ibe sisityalo esixabisekileyo somgquba oluhlaza.

Kutshanje, kunye nenkqubela phambili kwezenzululwazi nobuchwepheshe, izazinzulu ziye zasebenzisa ubunjineli bemfuza ukufumana iintlobo ze-nitrogen-fixing microorganisms ezineempawu ezintle ezininzi: amandla aphezulu okulungisa initrogen. , i-symbiosis elungileyo. I-Biotechnology ikwanceda ekudaleni iintlobo ze-microorganisms ezikhuphisana kakhulu ne-microorganisms zomhlaba. Kwelinye icala, i-biotechnology ivumele izazinzulu ukuba zahlule ijini yokulungiswa kwenitrogen kwibhaktiriya kwaye iyifake kwinucleus yeeseli zesityalo, ivumela ukuba ezinye iintlobo zezityalo zidale ukukwazi ukulungisa initrogen.Ukulungiswa kwenitrogen njengebhaktiriya.

Okwangoku kwimarike yesichumisi kwilizwe lethu, izichumisi ze-nitrogen-fixing microbial zithengiswa phantsi kwamagama alandelayo orhwebo:

+ Izichumisi zeNitragin ziqulathe iintsholongwane zesoya.

+ Umgquba weRhidafo uqulathe iintsholongwane zamaqhuqhuva e-peanut.

+ IAzotobaterin inebhaktheriya efunxa initrogen yasimahla.

+ IAzozin, iintsholongwane ezifunxa initrogen emoyeni ehlala kumasimi erayisi. Esi sichumiso singaxutywa nembewu yerayisi.

I-Phosphate-soluble microorganisms: Izityalo zinokufunxa kuphela i-phosphorus emhlabeni ngendlela enyibilikayo kwisisombululo somhlaba. Ngoko ke, i-phosphorus ekwimo ekunzima ukuyinyibilika emhlabeni ayikwazi ukufunxwa zizityalo. Oku kuchaza ukuba kutheni kukho iintlobo ezininzi zomhlaba ezifana nomhlaba obomvu, umhlaba omnyama, njl njl. Isiqulatho se-phosphorus emhlabeni siphezulu kakhulu, kodwa izityalo azikwazi ukufunxa ngenxa yokuba i-phosphorus ikwimo enzima yokunyibilika.

Emhlabeni kuhlala kukho iqela le-microorganisms ekwazi ukunyibilikisa i-phosphorus. Eli qela le-microorganisms libizwe zizazinzulu njengeqela le-HTL (PSM-phosphate solubilizing microorganisms).

Iqela le-Phosphate-soluble libandakanya: i-Aspergillus niger, ezinye iintlobo ze-bacterial genera Pseudormonas, i-Bacillus, i-Micrococcus. Eli qela le-microorganisms likhuliswa ngokulula kwimidiya yokwenziwa. Kwiindawo ezininzi, abantu baye baxuba i-biomass okanye i-spores ye-phosphorus-soluble microorganisms emva kokuhlakulela kunye nokuphindaphinda kwilabhoratri nge-phosphorite okanye i-apatite powder emva koko bafake izityalo. Ukusebenzisa iimveliso zemicrobial ye-HTL kusebenza kakhulu kwimihlaba enokusilela kwe-phosphorus.

Ezinye ii-microorganisms eziphila ngokuhambelana kwiingcambu zezityalo ziyakwazi ukufunxa i-phosphorus ukunika izityalo. Phakathi kwezi ntlobo ze-VA mycorrhiza. Olu hlobo lunokunyibilikisa i-iron phosphate emhlabeni ukuze ibonelele nge-phosphorus kwizityalo. Ukongezelela, le ntlobo nayo inamandla okudibanisa izinto Cu, Zn, Fe … kwizityalo. Kwiindawo ezininzi, abantu basebenzisa i-VA mycorrhiza ukunyusa isivuno seeorenji, iilamuni, ii-apile, ikofu… Ukulima i-VA mycorrhiza kwi-artificial medium kunzima kakhulu. Ke, okwangoku, amalungiselelo aqulathe i-VA mycorrhiza athengiswa kuphela umda kakhulu kwimarike yesichumisi yase-US.

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, kwiimarike zesichumisi kwamanye amazwe, kukho i-Phosphorus – amalungiselelo ebhaktheriya aqulethe ibhaktheriya ekhupha i-phosphorus egayiweyo ngokulula kwizinto eziphilayo.

Iimicroorganisms ezikhuthaza ukukhula kwezityalo: Kubandakanya iqela leentlobo ezininzi ze-microorganisms, kuquka ibhaktheriya, i-fungi, i-actinomycetes … Eli qela lahlukaniswa zizazinzulu ezivela kwi-consortium ye-microbial yomhlaba.

Abantu basebenzisa amalungiselelo aquka ii-microorganisms ezikhethiweyo zokutshiza kwizityalo okanye ukuchumisa umhlaba ukwenza izityalo zikhule, zikhule kakuhle, zincinci izitshabalalisi kunye nokwandisa imveliso. Le mveliso iphinda ikhulise amandla okuntshula kwembewu, ikhulise ubunzima bembewu, ikhuthaze ukukhula kweengcambu ezinamandla. Ngaloo ndlela, ukulungiswa kunempembelelo ye-synergistic kwizityalo.

Ukuvelisa iimveliso ze-microbial ezikhuthaza ukukhula kwezityalo, iteknoloji ye-microbial fermentation isetyenziswa. Kumazwe ahambele phambili kwezoqoqosho, abantu basebenzisa izixhobo zokubila ezizenzekelayo ezinomthamo omkhulu. Kumazwe ahambele phambili kwezoqoqosho, abantu baye basebenzisa ubuchule bokubila kwindawo eqinileyo ukuvelisa la malungiselelo, nto leyo eyabangela ukuba kubekho iziphumo ezihle.

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, ilizwe lethu liqhuba iimvavanyo zamalungiselelo e-EM ngunjingalwazi waseJapan uTeruo Higa. Eli lungiselelo libizwa ngokuba yi-microorganisms esebenzayo (EM). Lo ngumxube weqela le-microorganisms ezinoncedo ezibandakanya i-lactic acid bacteria, i-yeasts, ezinye i-actinomycetes, iibhaktheriya ze-photosynthetic … Kwinkomfa yokuvavanya iziphumo zokusetyenziswa kwe-EM EThailand ngoNovemba 1989, izazinzulu zavavanya imiphumo emihle ye-EM njenge ilandelayo:

+ Phucula imbonakalo yomzimba, yeekhemikhali kunye nebhayoloji yomhlaba.

+ Yehlisa izinambuzane nezifo emhlabeni.

+ Yandisa ukusebenza kakuhle kwezichumisi eziphilayo.

+ Izityalo zikhula kwaye zikhule kakuhle, zinika isivuno esikhulu, umgangatho olungileyo weemveliso zolimo.

+ Ukunciphisa izinambuzane kunye nezifo zezityalo.

+ Ukuba negalelo ekucoceni okusingqongileyo.

Iimveliso ze-EM zikwasetyenziswa ekufuyweni kwezilwanyana. Ukutya iinkomo kunye ne-EM kwandisa i-microflora kwi-intestinal tract, kwandisa impilo, kunciphisa ukuvumba kwamathumbu.

Ukongeza, i-EM isetyenziselwa ukucoca indawo ehlala emanzini.

Ezinye iingongoma zinika ingqalelo xa usebenzisa izichumisi ze-microbial

Izichumisi ze-Microbial eziveliswa kwilizwe lethu zihlala zifana ne-brown and black powder, kuba iindawo ezininzi zokuvelisa zisebenzise i-peat njenge-filler, i-carrier ye-bacteria.

Izichumisi zemicrobial eziveliswe ekhaya ziqhele ukusetyenziswa ngokuxuba imbewu efafaziweyo ukunyakamisa imbewu kwimizuzu eyi-10-20 phambi kokuhlwayela. I-concentration esetyenzisiweyo yi-100kg yembewu exutywe ne-1kg yesichumisi esincinci.

Iimveliso zemicrobial eziveliswe ekhaya zihlala zingagcini ixesha elide. Emva kweenyanga ezi-1 ukuya kwezi-6, umsebenzi we-microorganisms ekulungiseleleni uyancipha ngokukhawuleza. Ngoko ke, xa usebenzisa, kuyimfuneko ukujonga ngokucophelela umhla wokuvelisa kunye nexesha lokusebenzisa eliboniswe kwiphakheji.

Izitofu ze-Microbial zizinto eziphilayo, ukuba zigcinwe kumaqondo okushisa angaphezu kwe-300C okanye kwiindawo ezinokukhanya kwelanga, ezinye ii-microorganisms ziya kufa. Ngenxa yoko, ukusebenza kwemveliso kuyancipha. Umgquba weMicrobial kufuneka ugcinwe kwindawo epholileyo kwaye ungavezwa lilanga.

Izichumisi zeMicrobial zikholisa ukusebenza kuphela kumhlaba ofanelekileyo kunye neemeko zemozulu. Ngokwesiqhelo zikhula kakuhle kwindawo ephakamileyo, kwizityalo ezingenzulwanga.

Umthombo: UProf. uGqr. Duong Hong Dat (Incwadana yezichumisi-Hanoi Publishing House)

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