Nhóm phân hữu cơ – Phần 1: Giới thiệu về phân chuồng, phân rác | Hatgiongtihon.net

Izichumisi zendalo zinyusa izivuno zezityalo kwaye zikwaphucula umhlaba. Iziphumo zolunye uphononongo zibonisa ukuba ukusebenzisa itoni enye yesichumiso esiphilayo kumhlaba we-alluvial woMlambo iRed River kuvelisa isivuno sokuya kuthi ga kwi-80-120kg yerayisi, i-40-60kg ye-paddy kumhlaba ongachumiyo, kunye nomhlaba we-alluvial eMekong. Delta 90. -120kg. Olunye uvavanyo lubonisa ukuba ukufaka iitoni ezi-6-9 zomgquba oluhlaza ngehektare nganye okanye ukugxumeka iitoni ezili-9-10 zamagqabi emidumba ngehektare nganye kunokuthatha indawo ye-60-90kg N/ha. Ukusebenzisa amagqabi omlambo, iindiza, namagqabi ombona esityalo sangaphambili kwisityalo esilandelayo kwandise i-0.3 yeetoni zamandongomane asentwasahlobo, iitoni ezi-0.6 zerayisi, iitoni eziyi-0.4 zeenkozo zombona ngehektare nganye.


Intshayelelo kumgquba

Umgquba ngumgquba oveliswa yimfuyo. Ngokomyinge, inkomo nganye egcinwe eshedini, emva konyaka ngamnye, inokubonelela ngesixa silandelayo somgquba (kuquka nenkunkuma):

+ Iihagu: 1.8 – 2.0 iitoni/intloko/ngonyaka

+ Iibhokhwe: 0.8 – 0.9 iitoni/intloko/ngonyaka

+ Iinkomo: 0.8 – 0.9 iitoni / intloko / ngonyaka

+ Amahashe: 6.0 – 7.0 iitoni / intloko / ngonyaka

Umgangatho kunye nexabiso lomgquba lixhomekeke kakhulu kwindlela okhathalelwa ngayo, okhuliswe ngayo, olahlwayo kunye ne-compost.

Umgquba olungileyo ukholisa ukuba nesondlo esifanayo njengakuLuhlu loku-1

Uluhlu loku-1: Ukwakhiwa kwesondlo somgquba

Iyunithi: %








Uhlobo lomgquba


H2O


ABAFAZI


P2O4


K2O


Phezulu


MgO

Ihagu

82.0

0.80

0.41

0.26

0.09

0.10

Iinkomo

83.1

0.29

0.17

1.00

0.35

0.13

Ihashe

75.7

0.44

0.35

0.35

0.15

0.12

Inkukhu

56.0

1.63

0.54

0.85

2.40

0.74

Idada

56.0

1.00

1.40

0.62

1.70

0.35

Kwiitoni ezili-10 zomgquba, ezinye izinto zokulandelela zingatsalwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: Bo: 50-200g; UMn: 500-2000g; Co: 2-10g; Cu 50-150g; I-Zn: 200-1000g; Mo: 5-25g.


Ikheji: Inkunkuma inesiphumo sokugcina ubushushu, ukudala iimeko ezomileyo kwimfuyo, kunye nokunyusa umthamo womgquba. Ngoko ke, umgquba kufuneka ube nefuthe lokufunxa amanzi alindle, umchamo, iiprotheyini kunye nokunyusa umthamo kunye nomgangatho womgquba. Kuyimfuneko ukuba ukhethe i-litter elungileyo kwaye uqhube i-litter ngokucophelela.

Abalimi bethu bahlala besebenzisa iindiza, amagqabi emidumba, izityalo zomgquba oluhlaza, amagqabi, ifula.. ukwenza umgquba.


Ukwenza umgquba: Lo ngumlinganiselo oyimfuneko phambi kokuzisa umgquba wokuchumisa intsimi. Kuba kumgquba omtsha kukho imbewu eninzi yokhula, izinambuzane ezininzi zepupa cocoons, iimbewu ezininzi ezileleyo zomngundo, iactinomycetes, ibhaktheriya kunye nenematodes ebangela izifo. ukubola kwezinto eziphilayo kunye nokukhawulezisa inkqubo ye-mineralization ukwenzela ukuba xa isetyenziswe emhlabeni, izichumisi ze-organic zingabonelela ngokukhawuleza izondlo kwisityalo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umlinganiselo ophezulu we-C / N kumgquba omtsha yimeko efanelekileyo ye-microorganisms ukubola izinto eziphilayo kwizigaba zokuqala zokusebenza okuphezulu. Ziya kusebenzisa izondlo ezininzi kwaye zikhuphisane nezityalo ngezondlo.

Umgquba wehlisa ubunzima bomgquba, kodwa umgangatho womgquba uyenyuka. Isiphelo senkqubo yokwenza umgquba ngumgquba ophilayo okanye umgquba. Kulo manyolo, kukho i-humus, into engabonakaliyo yezinto eziphilayo, i-salts yamaminerali, iimveliso eziphakathi kwenkqubo yokubola, ezinye i-enzymes, i-stimulants kunye neentlobo ezininzi ze-saprophytic.

Kwimozulu yeTropiki yelizwe lethu elinomswakama ophezulu, ukukhanya kwelanga okuninzi, ubushushu obuphezulu, ukubola kwezinto eziphilayo kwenzeka ngokukhawuleza… Ukusebenzisa umgquba obolileyo obolileyo yeyona nto ilungileyo. yenitrogen.

Umgangatho kunye nomthamo womgquba wohluka kakhulu ngokuxhomekeke kwixesha kunye nendlela yokwenza umgquba. Ixesha le-composting kunye nendlela ichaphazela kakhulu ukubunjwa kunye nomsebenzi we-microorganisms ezibolayo, ukuguqula i-organic matter ibe yi-humus, ngaloo ndlela ichaphazela umgangatho kunye nomthamo we-compost.

Ukuqinisekisa ukuba iinkqubo ze-microbial ziqhutywa ngokufanelekileyo, indawo yokubumba i-compost kufuneka ibe ne-ingressable, indawo ephakamileyo, ukuphepha amanzi emvula amileyo. Ingqumba yomgquba kufuneka ibenophahla ukuze ithintele ilahleko yenitrogen. Ecaleni kwendawo yokwenza umgquba, kufuneka kubekho umngxuma wokugcina amanzi asuka kwingqumba yomgquba. Sebenzisa amanzi omgquba kulo mngxuma ukuphinda unkcenkceshele imfumba yomgquba ukugcina ukufuma okuyimfuneko, udala iimeko ezilungeleyo ukuba iqela leentsholongwane lisebenze ngakumbi.

Intshayelelo kwiindlela zokwenziwa komgquba

Kukho iindlela ezi-3 zokwenza umgquba:


  • Ukutshisa okutshisayo: Xa umgquba ususiwe eshedini, umgquba ubekwe ngokwemigangatho apho kukho i-substrate engangeni manzi, kodwa ingadityaniswanga. Emva koko nkcenkceshela umgquba, ugcine ukufuma kwimfumba ye-compost 60-70%. Kunokwenzeka ukongeza i-1% ye-lime powder (ngobunzima) kwimeko yokuzalisa ezininzi. Yongeza i-1-2% ye-superphosphate ukugcina iprotheni. Emva koko beka udaka ngaphandle kwemfumba. Nkcenkceshela ingqumba yomgquba yonke imihla.

Emva kweentsuku ezi-4-6, iqondo lobushushu kwimfumba yomgquba lingafikelela kuma-600. Iintsholongwane ezibolayo zikhula ngokukhawuleza kwaye ngamandla. I-Aerobic microorganisms zihamba phambili. Ngenxa yomsebenzi onamandla we-microbial community, iqondo lokushisa kwimfumba yomgquba landa ngokukhawuleza kwaye lifikelela kwinqanaba eliphezulu. Ukuqinisekisa ukuba ii-microorganisms ze-aerobic zisebenza kakuhle, kuyimfuneko ukugcina i-compost pile ikhululekile, i-porous kunye ne-airy.

Indlela yokufukamela eshushu inefuthe elihle ekubulaleni imbewu yokhula, isusa iintsholongwane zezinambuzane. Ixesha lokuvundisa lifutshane, emva kweentsuku ezingama 30-40 kuphela kunokusetyenziswa umgquba. Nangona kunjalo, le ndlela inenzuzo yokulahlekelwa yiprotheni eninzi.


  • Ukuphelisa okubandayo: Umgquba uyasuswa eshedini, wolulwe kwaye udityaniswe. Kumaleko ngamnye womgquba, fafaza i-2% yesichumiso sephosphate. Emva koko ugqume ngomhlaba ongumgubo okanye intlenga eyomileyo, ucolwe, ugayiwe. Ngokuqhelekileyo iimfumba zomgquba zicwangciswe ngobubanzi obuyi-2-3m, ubude buxhomekeke kubude bomhlaba. Iingqimba zomgquba zicwangciswe ngokulandelelana kude kube ngubude obuyi-1.5-2.0m. Emva koko beka udaka ngaphandle.

Ngenxa yokuxinana, ngaphakathi kwingqumba yomgquba iswele ioksijini, okusingqongileyo kuba yi-anaerobic. Ikharbon diokside kwimfumba yomgquba iyanda. Iintsholongwane zisebenza ngokucothayo. Iintsholongwane zisebenza ngokucothayo ukuze iqondo lobushushu kwingqumba yomgquba linganyuki liye kutsho kuma-30-350C. Initrogen ekwimfumba yomgquba ikwimo yeammonium carbonate, ekunzima ukuyiqhekeza ibe yiammonia, ngoko ke ubungakanani beprotheyini elahlekileyo buyancipha kakhulu.

Ngokwale ndlela, ixesha lokuvundisa kufuneka lithathe iinyanga ezi-5-6 ukuze lisetyenziswe. Kodwa umgquba unomgangatho ongcono kune-compost eshushu.


  • Zifudumeze kuqala, upholile emva kokuba: Umgquba uyakhutshwa kwaye ubekwe kwiileya ezingadityaniswanga ngoko nangoko. Yiyeke ngolu hlobo ukuze i-microorganisms isebenze iintsuku ezi-5-6. Xa iqondo lobushushu lifikelela kuma-50-600C, ukuxinana kuyenziwa ukuze kuguqulwe ingqumba yomgquba ibe yi-anaerobic.

Emva kokudibanisa, beka omnye umaleko womgquba phezulu, musa ukubumbana. Shiya iintsuku ezi-5-6 ukuze ii-microorganisms zisebenze. Xa iqondo lokushisa lifikelela kwi-50-60oC qhubela phambili ukudibanisa kwakhona.

Kwaye njalo de kufike ubude obufunekayo, uze ubeke udaka malunga nemfumba ye-compost. Inkqubo yoguqulo kwingqumba yomgquba ihamba ngolu hlobo: umgquba oshushu uqala ukufunxa umgquba, uze uwupholise ngokudibanisa umaleko womgquba ukuze i-nitrogen ingalahleki.

Ukukhuthaza ukuvuthwa ngokukhawuleza komgquba kwinqanaba lokuvuthela elitshisayo, ezinye izichumisi zisetyenziswa njengegwele elifana nomgquba wangasentla, umgquba wesilika, umgquba wenkukhu kunye namadada, njl. njl. Igwele longezwa kumaleko womgquba xa lingekho idibene.

Ukwenza umgquba ngolu hlobo kungalenza lifutshane ixesha xa kuthelekiswa nomgquba obandayo, kodwa kufuneka ube nde kunomgquba oshushu.

Kuxhomekeka kwixesha apho kukho imfuneko yokusebenzisa umgquba, indlela efanelekileyo yokwenza umgquba kufuneka igalelwe kuzo zombini ukuqinisekisa ukuba isichumisi sisetyenziswa ngexesha elifanelekileyo kwaye kuqinisekiswe umgangatho womgquba.

2. Ilindle lenkunkuma

Umgquba wenkunkuma waziwa ngokuba yi-compost. Yisichumisi esiphilayo esenziwe ngenkunkuma, ukhula, amagqabi aluhlaza, i-hyacinth yamanzi, i-straw, inkunkuma eqinile yedolophu … Umgquba uhlanganiswe nezinye izichumisi zegwele ezifana nomgquba, umchamo, i-phosphorus. , ikalika … de ukubola.

Umgquba unesondlo esisezantsi kunomgquba kwaye uyahluka kakhulu ngokuxhomekeke kubume kunye nokwakhiwa kwenkunkuma.


Isichumisi esivela kwinkunkuma

Izinto zokwenza umgquba zezi ntlobo zilandelayo:

+ Inkunkuma yazo zonke iintlobo (imveliso yenkunkuma esuse ubumdaka obungeyiyo i-organic, izinto ezingenakonakala).

+ Tyala iintsalela emva kokuvuna ezinje ngeendiza, izikhondo namagqabi.

+ Igwele kunye nezinto ezincedisayo (umgquba obolileyo, ikalika, umchamo, udaka, isichumiso sephosphate, uthuthu lwekhitshi).

Intshayelelo yeendlela zokwenziwa komgquba:

Zi-2 iindlela zokuvundisa: ukufukamela emhadini kunye nokufukamela emhlabeni.


  • Ukufukama phantsi komngxuma: Le ndlela ikholisa ukwenziwa kwindawo apho umhlaba womile, ungamanzi. Abantu bemba imingxuma enobunzulu obuyi-1.0-1.5m, ububanzi be-1.5-3.0m, ubude buxhomekeke kumhlaba. Umhlaba ongezantsi kunye neendonga zomngxuma uhlanganiswe. Inkunkuma ifakwa emhadini ngokwemigangatho. Umaleko ngamnye unobukhulu obuyi-30-50cm. Emva koluhlu lwenkunkuma, fafaza uluhlu lwezinto ezincedisayo. Kanye kunye nabancedisi, kunokwenzeka ukuba ufefe iiprobiotics ezininzi ukubola izinto eziphilayo ukukhuthaza ukubola kwazo zonke iintlobo zenkunkuma. Emva kokufafaza i-adjuvant, amanzi okunyakamisa inkunkuma egciniweyo kwaye uqhubeke nokubeka omnye umaleko wenkunkuma phezulu. Gcina ukupakisha ngolu hlobo de inkunkuma ibe yi-0.5-1.0m ngaphezu komhlaba, uze uyigqume ngodaka. Qinisekisa ukuba uncamathelisa iziteki ezimbalwa embindini wengqumba ukujonga ubushushu phakathi kwengqumba amaxesha ngamaxesha kwaye unkcenkceshele umgquba ukuba kukho imfuneko xa uziva wome kakhulu.

Ukuba iqondo lobushushu kwingqumba yomgquba lifikelela ku 500C, jika umgquba. Emva kokujika, ingqumba yomgquba kufuneka idityaniswe kwaye ivalwe ngodaka ukuthintela ubushushu obukwingqumba yomgquba ukuba bunyuke kunye nokulahleka kwenitrogen emgqubeni.


  • Umgquba emhlabeni: Le ndlela iqhutyelwa kwiindawo eziphantsi, okanye zikhukhula xa kunetha. Abantu bawugqume umhlaba, bawuhlanganise ngokuqinileyo umhlaba. Inkunkuma icwangciswe ngokwemigangatho njengoko kwindlela yokwenza umgquba emhadini. Xa ingqumba iyi-1.5-2m ukuphakama, abantu bayayigalela baze bayigqume ngodaka. Ukuba ingqumba yomile, nkcenkceshela umgquba. Xa iqondo lobushushu kwingqumba yomgquba lingaphezulu kwe 500C, jika umgquba, emva koko uwugalele. Abalimi abanemiqathango kufuneka bakhe indlu yokuvundisa ukuqinisekisa umgangatho womgquba kwaye bawusebenzise amaxesha amaninzi. Ukuba ukwakhiwa kwendlu yomgquba, isiseko kufuneka sithambekile sisiya kumngxuma wokugcina umgquba. Kufuneka kubekho umsele ojikeleze isiseko sokuqokelela amanzi endle kwaye uwaqokelele emhadini. Xa ingqumba yomile, sebenzisa la manzi omgquba ukunkcenkceshela. Indlu yokwenza umgquba kufuneka yakhe udonga olujikeleze amacala ama-3, udonga lube yi-2m ukuphakama. Indlu ihlulwe ibe ziiseli, iseli nganye i-5-6m2.

Emva kwexesha lokuvundisa, xa imfumba idilika, ishiya kuphela i-1/2 yobunzima bokuqala, isetyenziswe. Umzi ngamnye womlimi kufuneka ubenezinye iziza zokuvundisa ezi-2 zokusebenzisa umgquba rhoqo.

Umthombo: UProf. uGqr. Duong Hong Dat (Incwadana yezichumisi-Hanoi Publishing House)

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