Kỹ thuật trồng và chăm sóc cây chè | Hatgiongtihon.net


Ukutyala iti kunye neendlela zokunyamekela

Ubuchule bokukhulisa iti kufuneka budlule kwizigaba ezininzi. Okokuqala, kufuneka sazi iimpawu eziphambili zezityalo zeti:

– Izityalo zeti zokuvuna amagqabi kunye namagqabi amatsha njengezixhobo zokwenziwa kweti eyomileyo. Ke ngoko, amanyathelo obugcisa kufuneka adityaniswe ukuze kwangaxeshanye anyuse isivuno kunye nomgangatho weti.

– Umhlaba wokulima iti kumbindi welizwe kunye neentaba kumaphondo unzima, ukhukulisekile, kwaye kunzima ukuwulima… Ngoko ke, onke amanyathelo obugcisa kufuneka ahambelane, ahambelane, afaneleke kwaye asebenze kakhulu.

– Iti sisityalo esingapheliyo, ngoko ke izigaba zempembelelo kufuneka zinikwe ingqalelo, ngokukhawuleza, ngokubanzi, ngokuchanekileyo nangokufanelekileyo kwasekuqaleni, ukuphepha ukwenza iimpazamo – nakwixesha elizayo.

1. Ukukhethwa kweentlobo kunye nokusabalalisa itiye


Ubuchule bokutyala kunye nokukhathalela izityalo zeti

1.1. Imigangatho elungileyo yokuzala iti

Iti sisityalo esingapheliyo, xa sele ityaliwe, iya kuvelisa iminyaka engama-30-40 nangaphezulu. Ngoko ke, kuyimfuneko ukunikela ingqalelo ukuchonga iintlobo zeti ezilungileyo.

Iindidi zeti ezilungileyo kufuneka zihlangabezane nezi ndlela zilandelayo:

– Ukukhula: Umthi unokukhula olomeleleyo, amandla okuqina emasebeni, i-canopy ebanzi, i-buds ezininzi, ubunzima obuphezulu, amathupha ambalwa angaboniyo, amagqabi amakhulu athambileyo anamaqhuqhuva amaninzi.

– Ngokubhekiselele kwimveliso, imveliso: Iphezulu kwaye izinzile.

– Ngokomgangatho: unomxholo ophezulu we-tannins, izinto ezinyibilikayo, unombala omhle kakhulu kunye nencasa yeti, …

– Unokunyamezela iimeko zangaphandle, izinambuzane ezimbalwa kunye nezifo.

1.2. Indlela yokukhetha iti

– Ngeenqobo ezingentla, kuyimfuneko ukunikela ingqalelo kwindlela yokukhethwa komntu ngamnye. Ulandelelwano lwamanyathelo ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

+ Qokelela imbewu ekhaya naphesheya njengezixhobo zokuqalisa, emva koko ukhethe izityalo ezilungileyo.

+ Thelekisa iindidi ezikhethiweyo ukuze ubone ezona ntlobo zibalaseleyo.

+ Ukusasazwa okuhle emva kokuba ukhethiwe.

-Iindlela zokukhetha iintlobo zeti:

+ Ukukhetha okuxutyiweyo: Khetha izityalo ezilungileyo kwiqela lokuqala lembewu. Imbewu yezityalo ezilungileyo iyaxutywa kwaye ityalwe kunye kwaye ithelekiswe.

+ Ukukhethwa kweqela: Enyanisweni, lukhetho oluxutyiweyo, kodwa kwiqela lokuqala, sifumana iindidi ezineempawu ezahlukeneyo, emva koko siqhube ukhetho oluxutyiweyo lwamaqela azimeleyo.

+ Ukukhetha komntu ngamnye: Khetha izityalo zeti ezilungileyo kwaye uzityale ngokwahlukeneyo, emva koko ulandele iimpawu zemfuza zomgca ngamnye kwisityalo esilandelayo.

1.3. Ukuzalanisa iti

– Ukusasazwa ngembewu:


Ukutyala iti kunye neendlela zokunyamekela

Elula, kulula ukwenza, ixabiso eliphantsi, elifanelekileyo kwiimeko eziphantsi zokuvelisa, kodwa umthi ukhula ngokungalingani, ulungele ukuxutywa, izinga eliphantsi lokusabalalisa, … ingaba kwiifom ezilandelayo:

+ Ukuveliswa kwembewu ngokugqithisileyo: Ukusebenzisa amasimi eti avelisa kwaye avune imbewu. Kuloo ntsimi yeti, imithi iya kukhethwa ngokukhula kakuhle, ukuba ihleli, ayiyi kukha amathupha ukuze ikhulise njengemihlanganisela. malunga ne-1500/kg/ha.

+ Ukuvelisa izitiya zembewu ezikhethekileyo: Kuyafuneka ukuba utyale imali kukhathalelo olulungileyo, oluya kunika isivuno esikhulu sembewu emalunga nama-3000 kg/ha.

+ Imigangatho yembewu yeti elungileyo: Iimbewu kufuneka zihlume, zibe nesantya sokuntshula esingaphaya kwe-75%, imbewu enkulu enobubanzi obungaphezulu kwe-13mm, umthamo wamanzi ube yi-28 – 30% yobunzima bembewu, kwaye ibe ne-milky eucalyptus emhlophe. .

– Ukusasazwa kweti ngokusikwa:


Ubuchule bokutyala kunye nokukhathalela izityalo zeti

Le yinkqubela phambili yobugcisa kwimveliso, esetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwiindawo ezinobuchwepheshe obuphezulu (iSoviet Union, Japan, China, …) enike isivuno esihle kunye nomgangatho weti kwaye ineenzuzo ezininzi.Xa kuthelekiswa nokukhula kweti ngembewu, ezifana nokugcina iimpawu zemfuza zesityalo sikamama, i-propagation coefficient iphezulu ngokuphindwe kaninzi, isantya sokukhula siyakhawuleza, isivuno siyakhawuleza, isivuno siphezulu kuneso sembewu yesityalo (malunga nama-40%). ixesha elifanayo linomgangatho weti olungileyo.

Nangona kunjalo, le ndlela idinga inqanaba lobugcisa kunye notyalo-mali, ngoko ke ixabiso lezithole lisephezulu.

* Ukwenza

– Khetha umhlaba: Umhlaba osezintabeni kumaleko ongezantsi unombala obomvu omdaka, okhululekileyo, onepH = 5 – 6, ngowomhlaba ombi.

– Khetha ama-cuttings: Khetha amasebe e-Banh Tieu ngokukhula okuncinci ngokwesondo, akhula emva kokusika kunye nobubanzi be-4-5mm. Emva koko usike ube yi-4cm ubude, ube negqabi eli-1 kunye nehlumela eli-1, usike i-bevel kunye neplagi emhlabeni, ungasebenzisa i-potting nge-PE bag, emva koko ulungelelanise kwiibhedi, wenze i-canopy 1.5 – 1.8m ukuphakama, ekuqaleni igqunywe, emva koko ngokuthe ngcembe. uncedo. Ngexesha lenkqubo yokunyamekela, kuyimfuneko ukuqinisekisa ukuba ukufuma komhlaba kungaphezulu kwe-80%, ukususela kwinyanga yesi-4 rhoqo emva kweenyanga ezi-2, kanye emva kweenyanga ezi-2, ukunkcenkceshela ngezichumisi zemichiza: 14g nitrogen sulphate + 6g superphosphate + 10g potassium sulphate / 1m2 nursery. . Elona xesha lihle kakhulu lokusikwa kwe-cuttings ngoDisemba, mhlawumbi kwisityalo ukususela ngoJulayi ukuya ku-Agasti, emva kweenyanga ezi-8, izithole zilungele ukuphuma ngaphandle kwegadi ukuze zityalwe kwinqanaba elikhulu.

2. Indlela entsha yokukhulisa iti

2.1. Khetha umhlaba, ubuyise, wenze umhlaba


Ukutyala iti kunye neendlela zokunyamekela

– Khetha umhlaba ofanelekileyo kwizityalo zeti, kunye ne-slope ye-8-10 degrees, ukuya kuma-degrees angama-25, kunye nomgangatho onzima wokulima, itafile enzulu yamanzi aphantsi komhlaba, ecebileyo kwi-humus kunye nezondlo, kunye ne-pH ye-4.5 – 6. Emva koko, ukucoca nokucaba, emva koko ulime 30-40cm ubunzulu, ukuba awutyalwanga ngexesha, ungahlwayela umgquba ohlaza ukuphucula nokugquma umhlaba.

2.2. Yila induli yeti

Kuyimfuneko ukuba ubeke ingqalelo kumgaqo wokukhusela umhlaba ekukhukuliseni, kwaye ngexesha elifanayo ube nomlinganiselo ophezulu wokulima umhlaba. Umxholo woyilo ubandakanya:

– Ukwakha iinkqubo zothutho ezifanelekileyo.

– Ukwakha iinkqubo zokunkcenkceshela kwiindawo zokulima iti: imisele evulekileyo, iitanki, iindawo zokugcina amanzi.

– Yakha imiqolo yeti ecaleni kwemigca yecontour, wenze izithuba ezifanelekileyo, uze umbe umsele ubunzulu obungama-40cm ukuze ulime iti. Ngaphambi koko, faka umsele ngesichumisi esaneleyo: iitoni ezingama-20-30 zomgquba zixutywe kunye ne-500 kg ye-superphosphate kwihektare enye. Umqolo omnye wezityalo zomgquba oluhlaza unokudityaniswa phakathi kwemigca yeeyi: i-Muong, igesi, iimbotyi, i-peanuts, njl.

2.3. Ukutyala iti

– Ngamaxesha athile:

Kwimbewu emele ilinde ngexesha lokuvuthwa kweetiyi, umgaqo kukuqokelela imbewu yetiyi kunye nokutshala ngokukhawuleza, ngoko ke ixesha elifanelekileyo lokutyala itiye ngu-Oktobha-Novemba.

-Ukuxinana kunye nomgama wokutyala iti:

+ Ukuxinana kokutyala iti kunempembelelo enkulu ekukhuleni nakwisivuno samasimi eti, kuxhomekeke kwizinto ezininzi: i-topography, iintlobo, inqanaba lokulima ngamandla. Ukuba induli yeti inethambeka elithambekileyo, umgama ophakathi kwemiqolo yi-1.25m, ukuba ithambeka liphakathi, malunga ne-1.5m, okanye kumhlaba ongaphantsi kwamaqhina kwaye kudityaniswe noomatshini, umgama phakathi kwemithi udla ngokuba yi-0.4m. amasebe, umgama yi-0.6m.

– Kuhlwayelwa njani: hlwayela imbewu kumphezulu wegroove 5-6 imbewu/umngxuma, ukuba utyala amasebe, 2 izityalo/umngxuma, uze ugcwalise ngomhlaba 4-5cm. Ukuba kukho imbalela, kufuneka inkcenkceshelwe ngokufuma okwaneleyo ukuze imbewu intshule ngokukhawuleza.

3. Ukulawula kunye nokunyamekela iti yomntwana

Eli nqanaba ukusuka kwimbewu ukuya kwi-seedling linesakhelo se-canopy njengesiseko senqanaba elilandelayo lokungena kwixesha leshishini, ngoko ke kubalulekile ukunikela ingqalelo kumanyathelo okunyamekela okubalulekileyo:

3.1. Iitshiphusi zeti zithatha malunga

Ukwenzela ukuqinisekisa ukuba amasimi eti aqiniswa ngokufanayo njengesiseko sokulima ngokunzulu ukwandisa imveliso kamva. Kufuneka ujonge kwaye uqhube iimayile zangexesha zemithi efileyo. Ingahlwayelwa ngembewu okanye izithole kwi-nursery, kufuneka ithathele ingqalelo ukukhathalela kakuhle umthi.

3.2. Igumbi lokuthintela ukhula


Iindlela zokutyala nokukhathalela izitiya zeti

Ngeli xesha, imithi yetiyi yayisencinci, umhlaba wawungenanto, udala iimeko ezifanelekileyo zokukhula okuqinileyo kokhula, okuchaphazela kakubi izityalo zeti. Iindidi eziphambili zokhula ziquka:

– Iqela lengca lonyaka omnye: Ingca yodwa, ukhula, icardamom, .. Ezi ngca kulula ukuzitshabalalisa. Basenokufa ngokwabo.

– Iqela elihlala lihleli lokhula: Zivelisa ngesiqu esiphantsi komhlaba, ingcambu yengcambu, i-sporophyte efana nengca yeqanda lesele, ingca efulelwe ngengca, ingca yebhere, ingca yokubingelela, ingca eqandu, i-fern, umthi onyulu … ezi ntlobo zinzima ukutshabalalisa, kuyimfuneko ukutshabalalisa. thabatha amanyathelo amaninzi alungileyo afana nala: Ukulima ilizwe ngesandla amatyeli amaninzi ngonyaka, okanye ngamanye amanyathelo anjengokulima ngokudibeneyo. Ukongeza, kunye neemeko, sebenzisa iikhemikhali zokutshiza ukubulala ukhula olufana ne: Simaxzin, Dalapon kunye nenani le-6 -8 kg / ha,…

3.3. Ukulinywa kwezityalo ezahlukeneyo

Kwiminyaka yokuqala, imithi yeti ayikasasazeka, kwaye indawo phakathi kwemiqolo emibini isebanzi. Ukuze kuxhamle umhlaba, ukwandisa ingeniso yemveliso kunye nokuphucula umhlaba, abantu banokudibanisa imiqolo yeti kunye neembotyi ezifana neembotyi eziluhlaza, iimbotyi ezimnyama, iimbotyi zesoya, amandongomane, … UPhu Ho unesiko lokudibanisa iintlobo zamandongomane eTram Xuyen. ngengeniso elungileyo.

3.4. Isichumisi

– Injongo yesi sicelo sochumisi kukudala iimeko zokukhula kwezithole ngokukhawuleza, ukuphuhlisa amasebe amaninzi kunye namagqabi, ukwenza isakhelo se-canopy esibanzi njengesiseko sokuphucula imveliso yeti kwixesha elizayo. Ukongeza, yenza ukuba iingcambu zibe nzulu kwaye zivuleke ukuze zifunxe uninzi lwezondlo zokondla isityalo, zenze umthi uvumelane neemeko zangaphandle ukusuka ekuqaleni.

– Inkqubo yokufakwa kwesichumisi yoMphathiswa wezoLimo, olawula ukusetyenziswa kwezichumisi kwiti encinci, iboniswa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:





Ubudala beti

Uhlobo lomgquba

Ubungakanani besichumisi (kg/ha)

Inani lamaxesha okufaka isicelo

Ixesha lokuchumisa

Indlela yokuchumisa

1 unyaka ubudala

ABAFAZI

K2O

30

30

Ekuqaleni

Ekuqaleni

NgoJuni 6.7

EyeNkanga

Xuba kakuhle, sebenzisa i-6-8cm ubunzulu, gubungela.

Iminyaka emi-2 ubudala

Organic

P2O5

ABAFAZI

K2O

I-15,000 – 20,000 iphumelele

I-100

30

30

Ekuqaleni

Ekuqaleni

Ekuqaleni

Ekuqaleni

11-12

11-12

6-7

6-7

– Xuba kakuhle, galela i-15cm ubunzulu, 20-30cm ukusuka engcanjini

– Xuba kakuhle, galela ubunzulu obuyi-8cm, ugcwalise ngomhlaba

Ubudala 3

ABAFAZI

K2O

60

50

2

Ekuqaleni

3 – 8

3

Xuba kakuhle, galela ubunzulu obuyi-8cm, gqume ngomhlaba.

3.5. Ukunqunqa, ukukha kunye nokubumba iti yomntwana

– Injongo kukwenza imithi yeti ibe namasebe amaninzi amakhulu kwaye anamandla asisiseko, amasebe asasazwe ngokulinganayo enze isakhelo se-canopy esibanzi, ukwandisa indawo ye-canopy, ukwenza imithi yeti ibe nobude obufanele abacholi, ukumila okulinganayo. kuphuhliso lwexesha elizayo.

– Malunga nendlela yokugawula: Ngokuxhomekeka kwimeko yokukhula komthi, kukho imigangatho eyahlukeneyo kunye neendlela zokuchumisa.

+ KwiSoviet Union, xa umthi weti uneminyaka engama-2-3 ubudala kwaye unobude obungaphezulu kwe-25cm, ukusika kokuqala ku-10-12cm ngaphezu komhlaba; Ixesha le-2 30cm kude.

+ E-China, xa imithi yeti ineminyaka eyi-1 ubudala, i-75% yemithi ingaphezulu kwe-20cm ubude, okokuqala inqunywe i-10-15cm ukusuka emhlabeni, okwesibini i-15-20cm kude.

+ EVietnam, xa umthi weti uneminyaka eyi-1-2 kwaye unobude obungaphezulu kwe-50cm, ukusika kokuqala malunga ne-12-15cm ukusuka emhlabeni, ukusika okwesibini kuku-30-35cm, kwaye ukusika okwesithathu ngama-40- 45cm. Emva kwamaxesha ama-3 okusika, inokufakwa kwimveliso kunye nexesha leshishini.

– Ngokunxuseneyo nokusikwa kungentla, abantu baphinda basebenzise indlela yokukha kunye nokubunjwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: + Iti ineminyaka emi-2 ukuze amagqabi asetyenziswe ukondla imithi. Emva kweenyanga ezili-18 zokutyala, imithi yokukhula eyomeleleyo inokuvunwa kancinci kwiinyanga ezi-6 zokugqibela zonyaka, ivune amagqabi angaphezulu kwama-50cm ukuphakama.

+ Iti eneminyaka emi-3 ubudala inokuchola amagqabi ngaphezulu kwe-60cm ubude, ithathe i-shrimp enye kunye namagqabi ama-2 ngokwemigangatho, ungaqhubeki ukuchola amagqabi angafanelekanga.

+ Iti eneminyaka emi-4 ubudala: ukukhetha kunye nokunyusa i-canopy kunye nokulungisa ubuchule be-canopy.

Ukongeza, abantu banabo ubuchule bokubumba izithole zeti ngokucofa amasebe okanye ukugoba iziqu ukwenza i-canopy ukuze umthi weti ukhule kakuhle.

Umthombo: Incwadi yezifundo zezityalo ze-Industrial

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai. Các trường bắt buộc được đánh dấu *

Protected with IP Blacklist CloudIP Blacklist Cloud

0989796297