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I-Abalone mushroom kukutya okumnandi, ukutya okunexabiso eliphezulu lezondlo, ukubonelela ngesixa esikhulu seprotheyini, iswekile engumgubo, iivithamini ezininzi kunye neeminerali, kwaye liyeza elixabisekileyo ekugcineni, ukukhusela impilo kwizifo ezininzi, kubandakanya umhlaza, i-oncology kunye nomhlaza. ikwangumthombo oxabisekileyo wempahla ethunyelwa ngaphandle. Ngaphezu koko, yenye yamakhowa akhula ngokulula, ixesha lokuvuna ngokukhawuleza,… Yiyo loo nto kweli nqaku singathanda ukukukhokela kwiindlela zokukhula, ukunyamekela nokuvuna amakhowa e-abalone ngolu hlobo lulandelayo.


i-abalone mushroom

1. Lungiselela imathiriyeli yokulima amakhowa e-abalone

– Ezona zixhobo zokulima amakhowa e-abalone yinkunkuma yezolimo etyebileyo kwiselulosi efana neendiza kunye nesarha yamaplanga athambileyo kwaye akukho plastiki yokuthintela ukukhula komngundo okufana nemithi yerabha, imango, njl njl. izinti, izikhondo zombona, izikhwebu zombona…

-Imathiriyeli ekrwada emva kokucutshungulwa, ifukanywe, ixutywe nezondlo, ingxowa, i-autoclaved, kunye nenkcubeko. Emva kweentsuku ezingama-20-25, i-mycelium igcwele iingxowa ze-embryo, ngeli xesha iingxowa ze-embryo zithathwa kwindlu yamakhowa ukuze zinakekele kwaye zivune imizimba yeziqhamo.

2. Lungisa indlu yokulima amakhowa e-abalone

– Iimfuno kwizinto zokwakha indlu ye-abalone mushroom: yenza indlu ye-abalone mushroom nge-bamboo, amagqabi, umnatha, iplastiki. Umgangatho ungasetyenziselwa ukuxhoma iingxowa ze-mushroom embryos, malunga nendlu ye-mushroom inokugqunywa nge-wire mesh okanye i-nylon ukugcina umswakama, ukunciphisa izinambuzane ukunceda i-fungus ikhule kakuhle.

– Iimfuno zendlu ekulinyweni kwamakhowa e-abalone: ​​kufuneka acoceke, ome, angene umoya, atsalwe amanzi kwaye agcine ukufuma. Iingxowa zeembryo zekhowa zinokubekwa kwi pedestals (bamboo okanye intsimbi) okanye zixhonywe phantsi kwemivalo ethe tye, umqolo ngamnye uqelelene nge 20-30cm, umtya ngamnye uno 20-25cm ukuqelelana, umtya ngamnye unokujinga kwiingxowa eziyi 6-10. . Kungcono ukulungelelanisa isakhelo sokuxhoma kwiibhloko, ibhloko nganye isuka kwi-1.4 ukuya kwi-1.6m ububanzi, ubude buxhomekeke kumlimi. Ibhloko nganye ishiya iipaseji zokhathalelo olulula kunye nokuqokelela.

– Phambi kokuba sibeke amakhowa kwindlu yokulima, kufuneka sibulale iintsholongwane kwindlu yesikhowa ngekalika engumgubo rhoqo nge-100g yekalika egayiweyo/1m2 kwaye sisasazeke kumgangatho wendlu yokulinywa kwe-abalone mushroom.

– Emva kokuba indlu yama-mushroom ilungile, siqhubeka nokubeka isikhwama semibungu yama-mushroom ekunakekeleni.

3. Ukuzisa ingxowa yeembumba zekhowa endlwini ukuze zikhule kwaye zinyamekele amakhowa e-abalone:


Inkqubo yokukhulisa amakhowa e-abalone angwevu

– Khetha iingxowa ezine-mycelium emhlophe, emva koko uqhubeke nokususa iqhosha lomqhaphu ngaphezu komlomo wengxowa ye-embryo okanye usebenzise i-razor ukwenza iziqendu ezi-3-4 malunga ne-3-4cm ubude kwi-embryo bag, emva kokusikwa kwengxowa ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. imini yokutshiza amanzi.

– Amanzi okunkcenkceshela amakhowa kufuneka acoceke, angabina-alum, angabi nazinto eziyityhefu kwaye kufuneka ankcenkceshelwe ngenkungu ecolekileyo okanye ngesitshizi. Amanzi amaninzi okanye ngaphantsi kuxhomekeke kumswakama wendlu yamakhowa. Umyinge wamaxesha ama-2 / ngosuku, ukuba womile, amaxesha angama-3-4 / ngosuku.

– Qinisekisa ukuba ukufuma kwendawo yomoya apho amakhowa alinywa khona afikelela kuma-85-90%. Ubushushu obufanelekileyo 25-32oC, ubushushu obuphezulu 27-28oC. Ukukhanya okusasazekayo (okufundekayo) yeyona meko ifanelekileyo kuphuhliso lwemizimba yeziqhamo ze-mushroom.

4. Ixesha lokulinywa kwamakhowa e-abalone

I-mushroom ye-abalone egrey inoluhlu olubanzi kakhulu kwiqondo lokushisa kunye nokufuma, ngoko ke imozulu yaseMzantsi yelizwe lethu, umehluko weqondo lokushisa phakathi kwamaxesha amabini onyaka awukho phezulu, ngoko zombini zinokukhuliswa, kodwa ixesha elifanelekileyo kakhulu lasehlotyeni. imvula, kuba ngeli xesha umswakama ohambelana nomoya uya kugcinwa, oya kusindisa umsebenzi wokunkcenkceshela.

5. Iindlela zokukhulisa nokukhathalela amakhowa e-abalone:

5.1. Ukhathalelo lwe-Abalone mushroom:

– Emva kokuzisa ama-embryo kwiintsuku ze-7, susa iphephandaba, injongo kukuncedisa i-fungus entanyeni kunye nokudala ubungakanani obufanayo kunye nokuma kwendlebe ye-mushroom.

– Xa i-fungus iphumile, ngeli nqanaba kulula ukuchatshazelwa yimeko yangaphandle. Ngoko ke, umlimi kufuneka ahlangabezane nale miqathango ilandelayo: ukufuma okuhle kwi-70 – 85%, ubushushu ngu-28-36 0C, umoya kwaye ucocekile.

Qaphela: Indlu kufuneka icocwe ngokucokisekileyo (usebenzisa ikalika engumgubo okanye amanzi ekalika ahlanjululweyo ukufefa ngokulinganayo kumgangatho wokutyala) phambi kokubeka iimbumba.

Akukho ukunkcenkceshela kweentsuku ezi-7 zokuqala emva kokubeka iingxowa kwindlu yokutyala, kodwa emva kweentsuku ezi-7 (ukususela kwixesha lokukhutshwa kwephephandaba), i-fungus yabonakala imizimba eneziqhamo entanyeni yesikhwama. Ngelo xesha, i-fungus ifuna ngokwenene amanzi, ngoko zombini inkungu kunye ne-humidify indawo engqongileyo (amanzi angasemva 2-3 ngamaxesha ngosuku). Ukususela kwixesha lokukhululwa kwepini ukuya kwixesha lokuqokelela iintsuku ezi-4 (xa i-cap mushroom iguquka ukusuka kwi-grey ukuya kumhlophe omhlophe).

– Amanzi okunkcenkceshela amakhowa kufuneka acoceke, angabinazo i-alum, angabinazo iintsholongwane eziyityhefu kwaye kufuneka atshizwe ngenkungu ecolekileyo. Amanzi amaninzi okanye ngaphantsi kuxhomekeke kumswakama wendlu yamakhowa. Umyinge wamaxesha ama-3 / ngosuku, ukuba womile, amaxesha angama-4-6 / ngosuku.

Qaphela: Indlela yokunkcenkceshela ngempumelelo amakhowa e-abalone:

– Amanzi ane pH ye 6.5 – 7.5 ngawona angcono.

– Musa ukunkcenkceshela ngokuthe ngqo kwingxowa yeembumba, kodwa uyitshize ukuze wenze imvula elula ephuma phezulu, imanzise iindonga kunye nomgangatho wokudala ukufuma okuyimfuneko kwindlu ye-mushroom. Ngokuxhomekeke kwimozulu, amanzi amaninzi okanye ngaphantsi ukuthambisa indlu ye-mushroom, unkcenkceshele amaxesha angama-2-4 ngosuku (xa kunetha, kumanzi, akukho mfuneko yamanzi). Qaphela ukuba ukuhla kwamanzi akufanele kukudubula ngokuthe ngqo kwi-mushroom bud, eya kuyonakalisa kwaye iguqule indlebe ye-mushroom.

– Ukunkcenkceshela ngendlela yenkungu, ubungakanani bamanzi buncinci (i-fine mist spray) kodwa ukwandisa ixesha lokunkcenkceshela ukwenzela ukuba umphezulu we-mushroom cap unomaleko wamanzi amileyo.

– Umyinge wokunkcenkceshela 3-6 amaxesha ngosuku.

– Ngeli xesha, amakhowa adinga umswakama: Ukuba kukho ukungabikho kwamanzi, amakhowa aya kuba yinyumba kwaye adle kakhulu. Ukuba amanzi amaninzi, amakhowa aya kuba tyheli.

Qaphela: Kwinkqubo yokunkcenkceshela ama-mushroom, kunokwenzeka ukusebenzisa i-stimulant for rejuvenation, ukunceda amakhowa ahlale esitsha, ukwandisa ukumelana, ukwandisa ukuthengisa, ukuphucula umgangatho, ukuvunwa kwangaphambili, ukwandisa isivuno ngaphezu kwe-35% Xytokinin DA6 (i-soluble ngokupheleleyo). emanzini), i-Xytokinin – i-Kinetin okanye i-Cytokinin BA6 kunye ne-dosage ephakanyisiweyo: i-concentration ye-5ppm efafazwe ukusuka kwi-2 ukuya ku-3 amaxesha, ngokulandelanayo i-5g / 1000 ilitha yamanzi.

5.2. Ubuchule bokuvuna amakhowa abalone obusebenzayo


ukuvunwa kwe-abalone mushroom

Amakhowa akhula ngamaqoqo, ngoko ke xa amakhowa ekhulu ngokwaneleyo, kufuneka athathe iqoqo elipheleleyo (kunye neendlebe ezinkulu ezi-2-3 kwiqela).

– Sebenzisa isandla sakho ukubamba isiqu sekhowa kwaye usitsale ngobunono kwaye ususe yonke ikhowa. Xa kugqityiwe ukuvunwa, jonga kwaye uqokelele yonke imilenze ye-mushroom eseleyo phakathi kwentamo ye-embryo sac.

– Emva kokuqokelela amakhowa, coca kwaye uqokelele yonke imilenze ye-mushroom eseleyo. Sebenzisa ikepusi yeplastiki ukuvala umphezulu wengxowa ye-embryo emva kweentsuku ezi-7 ukuya kwezi-10, emva koko uvule isiciko ukuze uqhubeke nokuqokelela.

Emva koko, qhubeka nokukhathalela njengasekuqaleni kwaye njalo njalo phinda amaxesha ama-5-10 ukugqiba inkqubo yokuvuna. Ibhetshi nganye ihlukaniswe iintsuku eziyi-15-25.

Emva kokukha amakhowa, musa ukunkcenkceshela kwangoko kwingxowa yamakhowa, kodwa linda iiyure ezimbalwa ngaphambi kokuba unkcenkceshele kuba ukuba uyawankcenkceshela kanye emva kokuchola amakhowa, kuya kubangela ukuba iimbumba ezikwingxowa yamakhowa zife ngokulula.

– Emva kokuvuna isigaba sokuqala samakhowa, yeka ukunkcenkceshela malunga neentsuku ezingama-5-7 ukuze amakhowa akhule i-canopy entsha. Xa isikhwama se-mushroom siphela, yeka ukunkcenkceshela isikhwama se-mushroom, kuphela amanzi emhlabeni kwaye ujikeleze ukugcina igumbi limanzi yonke imihla. Emva kweentsuku ezi-3-4, qalisa ukunkcenkceshela kunye nokuphosa iingxowa zamakhowa ukuze udale ukufuma kwaye uvuselele i-fungus ukuba iqhume kwakhona.

6. Amanqaku xa ukhula, ukhathalelwa kwaye uqokelela amakhowa e-abalone

6.1. Ukuchaphazeleka kwemidiya yenkcubeko ye-abalone mushroom

I-Abalone mushroom yenye yezona zingundanda ezinochuku kwindalo. Ukongeza kwizinto zobushushu, ukufuma, ukukhanya, i-pH, i-CO2 yoxinaniso …, i-fungi inomdla ngakumbi kwizinto ezingcolisa indalo, ezifana neekhemikhali, izitshabalalisi, kunye neentsimbi ezinzima … umoya wendawo.

– Iindlebe zamakhowa zihlala zikhubazekile okanye ziyayeka ukwenza imizimba yeziqhamo. Ngoko ke, kuyimfuneko ukujonga iimeko ezikhulayo okanye umthombo wezinto eziluhlaza xa i-fungus ibonisa iimpawu ezingaqhelekanga.

6.2. Ukwaliwa okubangelwa zimbewu zekhowa ze-abalone:

– Kumakhowa alinyiweyo, qaphela ngakumbi i-abalone mushroom spores. Abantu abaninzi banovelwano kolu hlobo lwe-spores, oluya kubonakala kwiiyure ezi-8 okanye kwiiveki ezi-4-6 (kwezinye iimeko).

– I-Abalone mushroom spores ingena kwi-bronchi, ibangela iimpawu zokuphefumula, ukukhathala, amanqaku amaninzi abomvu ezandleni, intloko, ukukhohlela kunye nomkhuhlane (ukuya kwi-390C). Esi sifo sithatha iintsuku ezimbalwa kwaye emva koko siyahamba, kodwa sinokuphinda siphinde siphinde siphinde, xa siphinde sivezwe kumthombo wesi sifo.

– Ukuze ugweme ukuphefumla i-fungal spores (amakhowa e-abalone, kunye nezinye iifungi), kufuneka ugqoke imaski xa ungena kwindawo yokukhula, ngakumbi kusasa ekuseni xa kubanda.

7. Izifo eziqhelekileyo xa ulima kwaye unyamekela amakhowa e-abalone

– Amakhowa e-Abalone anamandla amakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, ukungunda kuchaphazeleka kakhulu kwendalo, njengoko ukuguquguquka kobushushu ngequbuliso kunokubangela ukuba umngundo uyeke ukukhula, ungakhuli okanye ubune. Amanzi okunkcenkceshela ayialum, anetyuwa nawo enza ukuba umngundo ungakhuli.

– Inkqubo yokubonelela ngamanzi kwi-fungus, ukuba amaconsi amanzi makhulu, aya kubulala ama-mushroom akhulayo ngokulula. Iindlebe ze-Mushroom kule meko, i-floppy kunye ne-droopy.

– Kwizifo ezosulelayo, kukho izifo ezimbini eziphambili: i-Green mold (Trichoderma.sp) kunye ne-fly larvae.

I-Trichoderma.sp sisingundo esikhula kwi-substrates esekwe ngamaplanga, yenza mnyama iingxowa zomngundo, oko kuchaphazela imveliso yamakhowa. Ukunciphisa ukukhula kolu bumba, kuyimfuneko ukutshabalalisa izinto ezikhulayo ze-mushroom kakuhle okanye ukunyusa i-pH yendawo.

– Kwimeko yeembungu zeempukane (iimpethu), zingena kwi-slits yomnyango wefungus, zilume kwaye zonakalise i-fungus. Izinga labo lokuzala likhawuleza kakhulu, ngoko ke umonakalo awuncinci. Abatyali ke ngoko kufuneka benze iminatha yokuthintela ukuba bangangeni. Nangona kunjalo, eyona ngxaki iphambili lucoceko lwefama, hayi kuqhambuko.

– Amakhowa e-Abalone akwiqela leefungi ezitshabalalisa iinkuni, eziphila kakhulu ii-saprophytes (ngaphandle kweentlobo ezimbalwa ze-parasitic, ezifana ne-P.ostrcatus, i-P.erygii). Uphononongo oluninzi lubonisa ukuba ukongezwa kwesidlo seembotyi zesoya, ukutya kweentsiba nako kunceda i-abalone mushroom ikhule ngcono.

8. Indlela yokugcina kunye nokusetyenzwa emva kokuvuna amakhowa e-abalone

8.1. Utshintsho lwamakhowa e-abalone emva kokuvuna:

– Ukuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni: amakhowa adla ngokuba namanzi amaninzi (85-95%) kwaye esi sixa siyimfuneko samanzi silahleka ngokukhawuleza ngenxa yokuphefumla kunye nokuphuma komphunga.

– Browning: ngenxa yokuba kwifungi, i-polyphenoloxidase yenza i-oxidation yeekhompawundi ze-phenolic ezingenambala ze-fungi kwi-quinones, ezinika umbala obomvu ukuya kumbala obomvu omdaka. Nangona kunjalo, le nkqubo yenzeka ngokucothayo, xa ifungus ijika ibe mdaka, iya kunciphisa ixabiso lentengiso.

8.2. Ukugcina amakhowa e-abalone emva kokuvuna

Qaphela: Ukugcina ama-mushroom, kukulungele ukuwaqokelela emva kokunkcenkceshela ubuncinane iiyure ezi-3, ukwenzela ukuba ama-mushroom endlebe ome kwaye angabi manzi.

Emva kokukhetha amakhowa, sebenzisa imela ukuze unqumle i-bottom of the mushrooms (ayisekho tyheli), uwafake engxoweni ukuze utywine umlomo wengxowa. Ukuba ufuna ukugcina ixesha elide, faka isikhwama samakhowa kwigumbi elipholileyo ukuze unciphise izinga lokushisa ukuya kwi-16-18 0C.

Ukomisa okanye ukomisa: sebenzisa izandla zakho ukukrazula amakhowa ngobude. Amakhowa omileyo elangeni ngosuku olu-1, omile kwi-40-45 0C kwiiyure ezimbalwa zokuqala, xa ama-mushroom omile, aphakamise izinga lokushisa ukuya kuma-50-55 0C. Faka kwingxowa yeplastiki evaliweyo ukuze ugcinwe.

Umthombo: Admin jikelele

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