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2. Ukusasazwa ngokwesondo

Ukukhula kweepersimmons ngokusasazwa kwe-asexual kudala izithole zePersimmons ngeendlela ezininzi: ukusika, ukuxutywa okanye ukusika. Le ndlela ithatha ixesha kunye nomgudu, kodwa ingenelo kukuba izithole zineempawu ezintle ezifanayo nezesityalo sikamama. Oku kuzise ulwaneliseko olukhulu kwigcisa le-bonsai kwaye ootatomkhulu nootatomkhulu bakhe baye bakwazi ukusisebenzisa ixesha elide.

a. Indlela yokusika amasebe


ukuthengisa

Ukukhupha kuthetha ukuqhekeza. Ukusetyenzwa kwesebe yindlela yokwahlula isebe ukusuka kwisityalo esinomzali werose ukwenza isityalo esitsha. Umsebenzi wokusika amasebe ulula kakhulu, kodwa kufuneka usebenzise ubuchule obufanelekileyo ukuze uphumelele.

Kukho iindlela ezimbini zokuxilonga:

I-1) Eyona ndlela ilula kunye neyona ndlela yokulondoloza umsebenzi kukukhetha isebe elide elanelisayo kufuphi nesiseko, thatha isiphelo sesebe kunye nobude obumalunga ne-20 cm, unqumle iqhekeza le-bark malunga ne-2 cm ubude. Kuyimfuneko ukukhuhla lonke eli xolo ukuze isicatshulwa esitsha sithathe iingcambu. Into elandelayo kukugoba isebe phantsi, ukwenzela ukuba indawo ehlutshiweyo isondele emhlabeni (kungcono ukuba ungcwatywe emhlabeni), ugubungele ngomhlaba, uze usebenzise intonga ye-bamboo ukuyincamathela emhlabeni ukuze uyibambe ngokuqinileyo. Ukuba ukha amanzi ngexesha lemvula, musa ukunkcenkceshela, kodwa ukuba udibana nembalela, kufuneka unkcenkceshele isiduli izihlandlo ezimbalwa ngemini ukuze ugcine umhlaba ufumile ukuze uncede izityalo zikhule ngokukhawuleza. Ukukhupha ngale ndlela, kuthatha malunga neeveki ezintathu kuphela ukuba indawo yokukhutshwa ithathe iingcambu kwaye inqumle amasebe akhulayo. Ngokufanelekileyo, emva kweeveki ezi-2 ukususela kumhla wokuxobula, kufuneka siphonononge ngobunono ubume bomthi…


ukuthengisa

2) Okokuqala, kufuneka sikhethe isebe elikhulu njenge-chopstick, elingemdala kakhulu kodwa lincinci kakhulu kumthi we-persimmon womama, esazi ngokuqinisekileyo ukuba uneempawu ezilungileyo. Amasebe kufuneka abe nobude obuyi 15cm ukuya kwi 20cm. Isebe elide kakhulu kwizithole liya kukhula libe nde, ngelixa iingcambu zalo zisebuthathaka kwaye zingenakomelela ngokwaneleyo ukuxhasa isityalo.

Kanye kwindawo yokukhutshwa, sasebenzisa imela ebukhali ukukhupha i-2-inch-wide block of peel. Emva koko sebenzisa umxube womhlaba oxutywe nobulongwe benkomo omisiweyo ukuze ujikeleze indawo apho amaxolo asandul’ ukuxotyulwa ukwenza imbiza enkulu yeziqhamo zeareca ukuze umthi umilisele iingcambu. Ngaphandle kwembiza, sebenzisa intwana yeplastiki emhlophe ebhijelwe kwisixhobo sokutsala ukusebenzisa intsontelo yenayiloni ukuyibopha ngokuqinileyo ukuze amanzi emvula kwakunye namanzi okunkcenkceshela angakwazi ukungena ngaphakathi. Ngumsebenzi owenziweyo lowo.

Ngombulelo wokuxinana, ingaphakathi lembiza inomswakama ofunekayo ukunceda isityalo sithathe iingcambu ngokukhawuleza. Malunga nesiqingatha senyanga emva kokutsalwa, siye sabona iingcambu ezininzi ezimhlophe zivela, kodwa kungcono ukulinda enye iveki ngaphambi kokusebenzisa imela ebukhali ukusika amasebe kwaye uwatyale emhlabeni okanye ezimbizeni.

Ukukhupha amasebe ngale ndlela yonke imihla akufuneki ukuba uchithe ukunkcenkceshela kwimbiza yokukhupha.

Ungasebenzisa umxube womhlaba kunye nobulongwe benkomo kunye neengcambu zehyacinth. Iingcambu ze-hyacinth zamanzi kufuneka zifakwe emanzini acocekileyo ngosuku ngaphambi kokucoca i-alum, emva koko yome. Ngaphambi kokusetyenziswa, gcoba emanzini ukuze uthambe, ucofe amanzi, uze ujikeleze isebe elihlutshiwe. Ewe kunjalo, umphandle usasebenzisa isiqwenga senayiloni ukusonga ngokuqinileyo kwaye ubophe iziphelo ezimbini ze-extractor njengasentla.

Umthi we-Persimmon unenkqubo yeengcambu ezibuthathaka kakhulu, ngoko emva kokusika kumthi womama, kufuneka siwubeke kwindawo yokugcina i-nursery (ugcine upholile, indawo yokuhlala enezondlo, uyinakekele kakuhle) kwiiveki ezimbalwa ukwenza iingcambu. ivuthiwe, uyikhuphe uyityale ngqo embizeni okanye egadini.

Ekuqaleni, kufuneka sisebenzise iintonga ze-bamboo ukuxhasa izithole ukuze zime ngokuqinileyo ngokuchasene nomoya nemvula.

Emva kweenyanga ezimbini ukusuka kumhla wokukhutshwa, izithole ze-persimmon ziqala ukuqhakaza. Sifanele sikhulise amahlumela amatsha ukwenzela ukuba umthi ube ne-canopy eqinile, kuba imithi ye-persimmon ihlala ikhula ngokubuthathaka, kwaye ingaphantsi … ixesha elide, ngenxa yeengcambu ezibuthathaka.

b. Indlela yokudibanisa


zizonda iirozi

Kukho izityalo ezintle zeentyatyambo kunye nezityalo ezimbi ezidubulayo. Ngezityalo ezineentyatyambo ezintle, abalimi basebenzisa iimela ezibukhali ezineengcebiso ezitsolileyo ukuze bahlule amagqabi amatsha, axhuzulelwe, okanye iqhekeza lesiqu esincinane okanye isebe, elimiliselwe kumthi onentyatyambo embi kodwa esomeleleyo. Ukuba uxhulumaniso luphumelele, amathupha, ukuxhunyelelwa… omthi wentyatyambo entle iya kuba ngamasebe amatsha omthi odubulayo ombi, ukufumana ingcambu yomthi odubulayo ombi kuya kuba yingcambu yakho kuba xa ukuhlonyelwa okanye ukuxhunyelelwa kuphumelela, kuya kuphumelela. Kancinci kancinci, amasebe eentyantyambo ezimbi aya kunqunyulwa, ukuze i-rootstock igxile ekukhuliseni ama-grafts amatsha.

Ngeerozi, kukho iindlela ezininzi zokuxhunyelelwa: ukuxutywa kwamehlo, ukuxutywa koxinzelelo, ukudibanisa i-wedge, ukudibanisa i-cross stem.

1) Ukuxhunyelelwa kwamehlo: Ukuze senze uqhaqho-fakelo lwamehlo, kufuneka sisebenzise umthi wepersimmon osempilweni njengengcambu, size sahlule iliso elimiliselweyo kumthi womama wepersimmon, oko kukuthi, umthi wepersimmon onembewu entle oneentyatyambo ezifanelekileyo.

– I-Rootstock: I-rootstock kufuneka yomelele, emva koko iRozi emiliselweyo iphile.

Ngokuqhelekileyo abalimi basebenzisa i-persimmon yasendle njengengcambu, kuba olu didi lukhula kakuhle, isityalo esingapheliyo sivelisa iintyatyambo. Ukudala i-rootstock, akukho nto ingcono kunokusika isebe le-rose yasendle ibe yiziqwenga ezinobude obumalunga ne-20cm (khetha amasebe angaphezulu kancinci kune-chopstick ukuba atye irayisi kwaye ayidala kakhulu, kwaye ayincinci kakhulu), emva koko thabatha. egadini, okanye kwizityalo ezisezityaneni. Emva kweenyanga ezimbini, bamila iingcambu. Imithi kule minyaka ilungele i-rootstock.


amehlo ahlangeneyo

– Amehlo amiliselweyo: Amehlo amiliselweyo ahlulwe kwii-axils zamagqabi zomthi wepersimmon. Kufuneka kwenziwe oku ukususela kusasa okanye emva kwemini, xa imozulu ipholile. Kwaye ngalo lonke ixesha amehlo amiliselweyo esahluliwe, kufuneka atyalwe kwangoko kwingcambu entsha elungileyo.

Ukwahlula i-graft kwisityalo sikamama, kufuneka sisebenzise imela ebukhali ukuyisika. Kufuneka ukhethe amehlo aveze amahlumela amancinci, xa amahlumela ehlala, aya kuba namandla okuphumelela. I rose elingumama lingohlulwa kumehlo ambalwa amathathu ukuya kwamahlanu okanye asixhenxe amiliselweyo…

– Indlela yokuxhunyelelwa: Khetha indawo kwi-rootstock yokugxumeka kwamehlo, sebenzisa imela ebukhali ukwenza i-T-shaped incision nge-diameter ye-1cm ngaphandle kwexolo. Okulandelayo kukwahlula imiphetho emibini ebanzi yeqokobhe ukuze ilingane iliso elimbaxa. Nceda uqaphele ukuba xa uhlula kumthi we-persimmon womama, i-bark ejikeleze amahlumela kufuneka inqunywe kwi-triangular shape, kunye ne-surface malunga ne-1cm. Kuyimfuneko ukususa iinkozo zokhuni, ukuba kusekho iliso, kwaye uzame ukunyamekela ukuba ungavumeli ukuba i-graft yonakaliswe. Xa uxhunyelelwa, kuyimfuneko ukubeka i-buds ijonge phezulu.

Emva kokubeka iliso elimiliselwe kwingcambu, sisebenzisa intambo yenayiloni ukuqinisa i-loop (ngaphandle kweliso elihlonyelwe) ukuthintela ukungena kwamanzi emvula kunye nokunkcenkceshela. Malunga nesiqingatha senyanga kamva, siyayikhulula intambo, ukuba sibona amehlo aluhlaza okoniweyo, iyaphila. Kule meko, indawo ehlonyelweyo yavalwa ngenxa yokuba i-sap ivaliwe, ngoko ke ukususela ngoko, sinokuqiniseka ukuba siseza amanzi.

I-2) Ukuxhunyelelwa ngoxinzelelo: Ukufakela uxinzelelo kukusetyenziswa kwamasebe amabini e-rose yemithi emibini eyahlukeneyo, ukwenzela ukuba ekugqibeleni umthi onengcambu ephilileyo uya kuphakamisa amasebe omthi weentyatyambo ezintle. Ukuba ufuna ukwenza oku, qala ubeke iimbiza ezimbini zeerozi kufutshane enye kwenye. Omnye umthi womelele kodwa uneentyatyambo ezimbi, ukanti omnye uneentyatyambo ezintle yaye uziintlobo ngeentlobo ezixabisekileyo. Kucetyiswa ukuba ukhethe isebe elinye kumthi ngamnye wobungakanani obufanayo (okanye uphantse ulingane) ukuze ube kufuphi omnye komnye. Ngokukhawuleza ukuba zikhuhlane omnye komnye, sisebenzisa imela ebukhali ukukrazula amaqokobhe size siwacinezele kunye. Into elandelayo ekufuneka uyenzile kukusebenzisa intambo yenayiloni ukubopha loo ndawo iqinileyo. Senziwe, sinqumle umphezulu womthi ngeentyatyambo ezimbi ukuze ugxininise ekukhuliseni amasebe amatsha. Malunga neeveki ezintathu kamva, sasika isikhondo ngeentyatyambo ezintle, sishiya inxalenye emiliselweyo kuphela. Ngoko ke, irozi yokuqala eyayineentyatyambo ezimbi ngaphambili, ngoku ineentyatyambo ezintle.

3) Ukufakwa kweWedge: Sebenzisa isityalo sasendle esinempilo, kodwa iintyatyambo azihambelani nemigangatho ye-rootstock. Isebe elimiliselweyo lithathwa kumthi werozi umama oneentyatyambo ezinkulu kunye neentyatyambo ezingalunganga. Into efunekayo kukuba la masebe mabini kufuneka alingane. Ukufakwa kweWedge kuqhubeka ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

– Khetha isiphunzi zengcambu uze unqunqe onke amagqabi, unqumle amanqwanqwa amancinci, emva koko usebenzise imela ebukhali ukwenza nzulu ubume be-V.

– Indlela yokusebenzisa i-flap emile njengehamile.

– Ekugqibeleni, faka isiphelo esibukhali sencakuba yehamile kwimilo engu-V yesiphunzi. Ngaphandle, sebenzisa intsontelo yenayiloni ukubopha ngokuqinileyo ukugcina umdibaniso ungashukumi. Malunga neeveki ezintathu emva kokuxhunyelelwa, imiphetho iya kutshona, yaye ukusuka apho isiphunzi siya kuhluma amasebe amahle adubulayo.

Into efunekayo kukuba “ukukrola” kwizandla ezinobuchule ukwenzela ukuba i-graft ihambelane ngokufanelekileyo. Kwaye ke kufuneka kubekho indlela yokugcina ilungu lingahambi ukuze likwazi ukuntywila.

4) Ukuxhunyelelwa kwe-cross-stem: Beka iimbiza ezimbini ze-persimmon, enye yeentyantyambo ezimbi kodwa ezinempilo, kwaye enye yeentyantyambo ezintle ezisondeleleneyo, emva koko ukhethe amasebe amabini alinganayo. Kwisebe le-rose elibi (njengengcambu), khetha indawo yokugxumeka, emva koko usebenzise imela encinci enentsimbi enendawo ebukhali yokugqobhoza kanye embindini wombindi wokhuni. Ngokuphathelele isebe le-rose kwiintyatyambo ezintle, kuyimfuneko ukususa onke amagqabi kwaye emva koko ukhethe indawo yokufakelwa ukuze ususe iqhekeza lexolo malunga ne-0.5cm kumacala amabini esebe. Emva koko, faka i-graft kwisiqu se-rootstock, ukuze i-flap ye-bark ingene ngaphakathi kwesiqu se-rootstock.

Into yokugqibela kukusebenzisa intambo yenayiloni ukubopha nokutywina elo lungu. Malunga neeveki ezintathu kamva, ukususa ucingo nokubona apho iqokobhe lincanyathiselwe kuthathwa njengempumelelo. Umsebenzi wokugqibela kukunqumla i-graft kumthi weentyatyambo ezintle, ukuze iphile kumthi werozi njengengcambu…

Isishwankathelo, kwiindlela ezine zokuxhunyelelwa esisandula ukuzibonisa, ukufakelwa kwamehlo kuphela yeyona nto isetyenziswa ngokuqhelekileyo, kuba kulula ukutshintshwa kwaye kukho iimeko ezimbalwa zeshwa.

c. Indlela yokuthatha ama-cuttings

Ukusika kwakhona yindlela yokusasazwa kwe-asexual yezityalo zerozi. Kakade ke, iziqwenga ezisikiweyo kufuneka zibe ngamasebe omthi we-persimmon umama aneempawu ezintle njengeentyatyambo ezikhutheleyo, kwaye iintyatyambo zisemgangathweni kangangokuba wonke umntu ufuna ukukhetha ukuzityala. Nangona kunjalo, ayizizo zonke iintlobo ze-persimmon ezikwazi ukusika ngempumelelo. Kukho iindidi ezisikiweyo kwaye zisikwe nakweyona ndawo ilungileyo kwaye azize zithathe iingcambu. Iyakwazi ukuphila ixesha elifutshane, ihlume amahlumela aluhlaza njengamanye ama-cuttings, kodwa xa i-resin encinci egcinwe ngaphakathi kwesebe iphelile, “umthi” uyafa ngokuzenzekelayo. Ukuba uthe wayitsala, awuyi kufumana nengcambu enye!

Ke ngoko, umthi we-Persimmon wokusika kufuneka ube luhlobo lwe-persimmon olukwazi ukusika iingcambu.

Ukusika kuthetha ukusebenzisa isetyana lomthi osempilweni womama wepersimmon (okhethiweyo ungemdalanga kakhulu kwaye ungekho mncinci kakhulu) omalunga neesentimitha ezili-15 ubude kwaye akufuneki ube mkhulu (ubukhulu nje njengechopstick ukuze utye irayisi). Ngaloo ndlela, isebe elinye lomthi wepersimmon linokusikwa libe ziziqwenga ezininzi ukwenza amaqhekeza. Kufuneka usike isiqwenga nge-blade encinci kwaye ubukhali kakhulu, ukusika kufuneka kube mnandi ukuphepha ukutyunyuzwa, kuba ukusika konakala lula.

Emva kokuba i-nursery isendaweni, faka isichumisi ngamanzi aneleyo ukugcina i-cuttings imanzi. Umgama phakathi kokusikwa ezimbini ukusuka kwi-10cm ukuya kwi-15cm uphakathi.

Ukuba sinqwenela, sinokucwilisa “ingcambu” ye-cuttings kwi-rooting stimulants njenge-Atonic, i-Boutormone … ekhoyo kwimarike, ngaphambi kokutyala emhlabeni.

Indlela yokutyala amagatya kukusebenzisa intonga yokugawula i-2cm nzulu emhlabeni emva koko ufakele loo maqhekeza kuloo mngxuma. Ukutyala nzulu kunzima ukuncothula. Ukusikwa kungatyalwa ngokuthe tye okanye kuthambeke.

Ukusikwa ukuba kwenziwa ngexesha lemvula lihle kakhulu, kuba ukunkcenkceshela okuncinci. Kodwa, ukuba ama-cuttings akwixesha elomileyo, kufuneka akhuthalele ukunkcenkceshela ukugcina umhlaba ufumile rhoqo, kwaye ukunkcenkceshela ngokuxuba ngejethi yamanzi encinci kulungile. Ngexesha elomileyo, i-cuttings kufuneka ifakwe kwindawo enomthunzi, enomthunzi, ngaphandle koko, phezulu kufuneka kufakwe kwi-trellis.

Kuphela xa iingcambu zihlulwe ixesha elide, umthi unamandla okwaneleyo ukuze uzixhase njengeminye imithi eqhelekileyo, emva koko uwuyeke ngokuthe ngcembe uwubeke ekukhanyeni kwelanga, ngakumbi okanye ngaphantsi.

Umthombo: Ngokutsho kweViet Chuong, uLam Thi My Huong (iTekhnoloji yokutyala, ukukhupha, ukudibanisa, ukusika i-roses).

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