Kỹ thuật nhân giống cây mai vàng bằng phương pháp giâm cành | Hatgiongtihon.net

Njengezinye izityalo ezininzi, iiapilkosi zinokusasazwa ngokusikwa, ukusikwa, iinqaba okanye ukuxhunyelelwa. Ihlumela eliselula, iliso elinye elileleyo, xa lidityaniswe kwakuloo mthi mnye, liyakwazi ukuphila lize likhule libe ngumthi omtsha, livelise isiqhamo esineempawu ezifana nezesityalo esingunina yaye linokuvelisa ezinye izithole.

Malunga nekhulu leminyaka eyadlulayo, ubugcisa bokutsala, ukumilisela kunye nokusika imithi yokuhombisa ingakumbi imithi yeziqhamo ngokubanzi babusebungaqhelekanga kumagcisa ngelo xesha. Ngoko ke, kwixesha elidlulileyo, ootatomkhulu bethu babeyazi kuphela indlela yokusasaza ama-apricot ngendlela namhlanje esicinga ngayo eyona nto ixhaphakileyo, ehlwayelwa ngembewu.

Izinto eziluncedo: Izithole zigcina zonke iimpawu zesityalo esingumama, kodwa azikwazi ukuveliswa ngobuninzi.

1. Khetha imithi yeapilkosi ukuba uthathe iinqumle

Eli lelona nqanaba libaluleke kakhulu kumthi weapilkosi otyheli, ke qaphela kakhulu, hayi ngenxa yokuzisola ukuba “yichukumise ndaweni ithile” kwaye akufanelekanga ukuthatha amasebe nangaliphi na ixesha. Ukuba isithombo asihambelani nezinto eziyimfuneko, siya kukhula kakubi kwixesha elizayo kwaye singabi nobomi obude. Ukukhetha ixesha elingalunganga, izinga lokufa liphezulu kakhulu. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngenxa yokuba umthi ubuthathaka, kuya kuthatha ixesha elide ukunyamekela umgangatho, ukunciphisa ukusebenza kakuhle kwezoqoqosho.

Izithole kufuneka zibekwimeko entle (ukukhula okuqinileyo) kwaye zingabi nazinambuzane nezifo. Ngokukodwa amasebe ahloselwe ukunqunyulwa kwimbewu, akufanele asuleleke ngezinambuzane, izifo kumagqabi kunye namasebe (ingakumbi amasebe), ukuba kukho amabala ambalwa kumagqabi, sinokuwanqumla.

Ukukhetha ixesha elifanelekileyo lokuthena kubaluleke kakhulu. Njengoko sonke sisazi, kumthi weapilkosi, emva kokuhluma kunye namagqabi amancinci ekuqaleni konyaka, unento ephindaphindayo, ephindaphindwa kaninzi ngonyaka ngokomgaqo ulandelayo: Amagqabi kunye namagqabi amancinci ajika ngokukhawuleza, emva ukuba, amahlumela amatsha kunye namagqabi amancinci avela. Amaza anjalo abizwa ngokuba yi “mobile phase” kunye “nesigaba sokumisa”. Inqanaba elihambayo lisusela kwixesha apho amagqabi kunye namagqabi asanda kuntshula de amagqabi abe sele eza kuvuthwa. Inqanaba lokuma kuxa amagqabi eqala ukuguga. Qaphela ukuba indawo yokuma emthini kufuneka yenzeke phantse kuwo wonke umthi. Kuba kukho iimeko, emthini, kukho iindawo eziguqukayo kunye nezizinzileyo ezitshintshanayo.

Xa uqinisekile ukuba umthi we-apricot ukwisigaba sokumisa ngaphezu kwe-90% (ngokukodwa amasebe embewu), siqhubela phambili ukusika izithole. Emini, ukusikwa kufuneka kuqhutywe kusasa okanye emva kwemini epholileyo. Ngenxa yokuba ukusika elangeni, izithole zibuna lula. Kwimeko apho kuyimfuneko ukusika kwimozulu yelanga, yinqumle nje, ngoko ke cwilisa isithombo emanzini kwaye ugcine iqabunga lonke limanzi de lisikwe libe ngamacandelo. Kwaye ukuqinisekisa ukuba “uqinisekise”, ngaphambi kokusika amasebe, amanzi kufuneka ankcenkceshelwe kwiingcambu ukuze abe manzi malunga neeyure ezingama-1-2 ngaphambili.

2. Khetha amasebe e-apricot

Ngomthi we-apricot ophuzi “Isondlo ngokuqhelekileyo sigxininiswe kwindawo ephakamileyo yomthi kunye necala elinokukhanya okukhulu”. Ngoko ke, izithole zinokufumaneka kuphela xa zidibana nezi zinto zimbini zingasentla. Ukuba isebe liphezulu, kodwa liswele ukukhanya, okanye ukuba isebe likwindawo ekhanyayo, libekwe ngezantsi, ukukwazi ukuhluma kuya kuba buthathaka kunokuba zombini kwanele.

3. Ixesha lokusika

Ngenxa yeempawu zokusikwa kweapilkosi, iqondo lobushushu alikho phantsi okanye liphezulu kakhulu (liguquguquka phakathi kwe-20 – 300C). Ke, apho kukho inyathelo lokuqala, unokusikwa ngamaxesha amaninzi. Ngokukodwa kwixesha lemvula, kuyacetyiswa ukuba wenze uphahla lokugubungela imvula (usebenzisa inayiloni ecacileyo enenetha malunga nee-intshi ezi-2-3 ngaphantsi). Injongo ayikukuvumela ukuba lo mthamo wamanzi “unikwe” kakhulu ukubola ukusika.

Enye into ekufuneka uyiqaphele kukuba ezinye iintlobo zeapricot ezityheli ngoJulayi ukuya kuthi ga ekupheleni konyaka zineentyatyambo zeentyantyambo kwii-axils zeqabunga. Ukuba malunga noMeyi wonyaka wekhalenda, i-buds kwii-axils zamagqabi zivela ukuba sichumisa (N) kakhulu, iya kuba ngamahlumela amatsha, ukuba ikhuliswe nge-phosphorus (P) eninzi, iya kwenza iintyatyambo zeentyatyambo. Ukuba sithatha iziqwenga esele zineentyatyambo zeentyatyambo, kuya kuba nzima ukuba amasebe ahlume. Kwaye ukuba isebe liyaphila, liya kuhlala lidubula.

Ngoko ke, xa ufuna ukusika i-cuttings kwiinyanga zokugqibela zonyaka, ngaphambi koko, kufuneka usebenzise izichumisi ezinomlinganiselo ophezulu we-nitrogen (N) kunezinye izinto, ukukhuthaza imithi ye-apricot ukuvelisa amaqabunga okunzima ukwenza iintyatyambo zeentyatyambo.

4. Ubuchwephesha bokusika kunye nokucoca ama-cuttings

4.1. Ubungakanani besebe

Ubungakanani besebe le-apricot lokusika akufanele lithathwe kunye nesebe elinobubanzi obukhulu kakhulu, kuphela isebe elinobukhulu be-rice chopstick (ububanzi obulingana no-0.5 mm). Kuba amasebe amadala eapilkosi kunzima ukuphila.

4.2. Ubude bamasebe

Ngokuxhomekeke kubukhulu besebe ngalinye, ubude bukhethwa ngokomgaqo othi: i-diameter encinci inqunyulwe emfutshane, ububanzi obukhulu bude. Elona lide lamasebe li malunga ne-15 cm, lifutshane li malunga ne-12 cm. Ukuba imfutshane kakhulu, amasebe anzima ukukrazula kwaye ukuba amade kakhulu, amasebe alula ukoma.

Qaphela: xa usika, kufuneka kubekho ilahleko kwindawo yokuqala neyesibini, kuba ukusika kutyunyuziwe kwaye kufuneka kuhlanjululwe kwakhona.

4.3. Ubudala bamasebe

Ubudala bamasebe e-apricot ukusika ibalwa kwiinyanga. Kwisebe, amalungu amancinci athanda ukukhula ngokukhawuleza kunamadala. Kufuneka sikhethe amasebe aneenyanga ezi-4 ukuya kwezi-10 ubudala ukwenzela ukusikwa (isebe elineqabunga lokugqibela likwisigaba sokumisa). Isebe elinye, sinokunqumla amacandelo amaninzi.

4.4. Sika iinqumle

Sika onke amagqabi aphezulu, ushiye kuphela igqabi eli-1 malunga ne-1cm kufuphi nesiko kwisiseko. Amagqabi kuphela afanele anqunyulwe, angacholwa, kuba ukwenza oko kunokukrwela ulusu. Ukuba amagqabi makhulu kakhulu, kufuneka achetywe nge ½ okanye 1/3.

Ukusikwa kuzo zombini iziphelo kufuneka kuchetywe ngemela ebukhali kakhulu ukususa iindawo ezityumkileyo.

Ngokukodwa, ukusika okuphezulu kufuneka kube nokuthambekela ukuphepha amanzi amileyo kulula ukubangela izifo.

4.5. Unyango lwezikhuthazi zengcambu

Kwiimeko eziqhelekileyo, ukuba iimfuno zenziwe ngokuchanekileyo, izinga lokusinda li malunga ne-60%. Ukwandisa izinga lokusinda lokusikwa ngokuqhubekayo, kucetyiswa ukuba usebenzise i-stimulant ye-rooting enegama lokurhweba i-Viprom exutywe malunga ne-10 mg kwi-1 ilitha yamanzi kwi-cuttings (ingcambu inxalenye) malunga neeyure ezingama-2-3 kwaye emva koko uzikhuphe. Ukusika.

4.6. Ubuchule bokusika

Kungakhathaliseki ukuba luhlobo luni losasazo olusetyenziselwa ukugalela embizeni, kunyanzelekile ukuba sisebenzise intonga ukuze sibethe imingxuma (punch) imingxuma kuqala, kwaye emva koko sifake i-cuttings kwindawo yokukhula (ubunzulu abukho ngaphezu kwe-1 cm).

Ngaphandle koko, ukufaka ama-cuttings kwi-medium kuya kukrwela umaleko wesilika wangaphandle kwaye emva kweentsuku ezimbalwa kuya kuba mnyama. Ukugrumba imingxuma enzulu kakhulu kukhokelela kule meko ingasentla.

Amasebe eApricot angatyalwa kwiimbiza kusetyenziswa uthuthu lwerayisi kuphela


Amasebe e-apricot kwi-gourds

Amasebe e-apricot kwi-gourds

5. Ukunyamekela ukusika

I-apricot cuttings etyalwe ebhodweni kwiinqanaba zokuqala zithinteka kakhulu kwi-mold, ibhaktheriya engena kwi-cut, njl. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngenxa yokuba ayinayo iingcambu, ayikwazi ukufunxa amanzi, iya kunqanda kalula. Ke ngoko, eli nqanaba kufuneka licokiseke kakhulu kumsebenzi ngamnye, kubandakanya:

– Amanzi okusika

Okokuqala, qiniseka ukuba uyazi i-pH yamanzi okunkcenkceshela (kufuneka iguquguquke phakathi kwe-5.5 – 6.5). Kuyacetyiswa ukuba ujonge rhoqo ukuguquguquka kwe-pH, njengoko amaqula ambiweyo okanye agrunjiweyo aneenguqu eziqhubekayo ze-pH (ingakumbi kwiindawo ezinamaqula amaninzi). Kunokuthiwa kusasa, emini, kunye nobusuku buhluke ngokuqhubekayo, … Ngokukodwa kumanzi ompompo asetyenziselwa ukunkcenkceshela i-nursery, nangona i-pH iphezulu, ukusika kusalungile.

Ngokubanzi, amanzi yeyona nto ibalulekileyo “ezweni…” kodwa. Ngoko ke, kufuneka sinikele ingqalelo kakhulu into enxulumene nayo ukusuka pH, salinity, alum, njl.

– Indlela yokunkcenkceshela i-apricot cuttings

Kukangaphi ngemini ukunkcenkceshela kwaye angakanani amanzi nge-1m ngexesha ngalinye2kunzima ngaphezu “kokufumana inaliti elwandle”.

Mangaphi amaxesha esifuna ukunkcenkceshela, kufuneka sisekelwe kwimeko ethile yosuku ngalunye. Ukuba kukho umoya omningi kunye nokukhanya kwelanga, umswakama uya kuncitshiswa ngokukhawuleza, kufuneka unkcenkceshelwe ngamaxesha amaninzi kwaye ngokufanayo. Ingxaki nantsi: Indawo yokugalela kufuneka isoloko imanzi kwaye ukufuma komoya kwindawo yokugcina abantwana kufuneka kusondele kwi-100%.

Izixhobo zokunkcenkceshela, kufuneka sisebenzise isitya sokunkcenkceshela kunye nendlovu ye-lotus (ekude nezityalo zokunkcenkceshela) kunye nomngxuma omncinci wokunkcenkceshela ibhodwe. Ngokunkcenkceshela ukudala ukufuma emoyeni, kufuneka usebenzise isitshizi senkungu. Nika ingqalelo ngexesha lokuqala xa amasebe engekagxili kunye ne-bud (kufuneka agcine amaqabunga e-cuttings ehlala emanzi).

– Ukulawula izinambuzane (kwindawo yokugcina abantwana) iapilkosi emthubi

Ekubeni umngundo (umngundo) kunye neentsholongwane ezininzi zithanda ukufuma okuphakamileyo ixesha elide, imekobume efumileyo kunye namaqondo obushushu kwindawo yokukhulisa iiapilkosi zifanelekile ukuba zikhule. Ukunciphisa ukukhula kwabo kwaye kubangele umonakalo kwi-cuts, kufuneka sitshize amayeza okubulala izinambuzane ukukhusela izifo kuqala.

I-apricot cuttings zihlala zimnyama ngezinye iifungi (ngamanye amaxesha isebe lonke). Sisebenzisa iyeza elibanzi elinegama lokurhweba elithi Coc-Man litshizwe malunga neentsuku ezi-5. Idosi kufuneka ibe ziipakethi ezi-2 kwibhotile enye yeelitha ezisi-8. Ngenxa yendawo ye-nursery efumileyo, ukuba ipakethe enye isetyenzisiwe, iyeza elixutyiweyo liya kusebenza kancinci.

Nokuba sitshiza kangakanani na, ngokuqinisekileyo kuya kubakho amasebe “afileyo”. Ngenxa yokuba eli chiza lingasentla linempembelelo yangaphandle kuphela, ukuba i-fungus ingene kwi-cut kwaye ingene nzulu kwisebe, ke eli chiza liya “kumisa i-dot com” rhoqo. Ngoko ke, kufuneka ngamanye amaxesha sisebenzise iyeza elinegama lokurhweba iViben – C etshizwe ngokuhlukileyo ngeCoc – Man. Idosi edibeneyo iphindwe kabini ukuqinisekisa amandla.

Amasebe awosulelekileyo kufuneka asuswe kwindawo yokugcina abantwana. Ngenxa yokuba ixesha elide, umthombo wesifo uya kusasazeka kwaye usasazeke kwi-nursery.

Xa izithole ziqala ukuntshula, sisebenzisa elinye lala mayeza mabini alandelayo afumanekayo kwezorhwebo ukuthintela ithrips: iLannate okanye iAdmire. Kwimeko apho kukho ukulunywa yizinambuzane kumagqabi amatsha, sebenzisa iLannate, kuba eli chiza likwabulala nezinye izinambuzane ezininzi.

Qaphela ukuba ngaphambi kokutshiza la mayeza, amaqabunga kunye namasebe kufuneka ahlanjululwe ukuze iyeza lingaxutywanga.

– Khulisa amagatyana eapilkosi atyheli

Ngexesha apho amasebe engekahlumi amagqabi kunye namagqabi, awachumisi ngokupheleleyo. Ngenxa yokuba amagqabi yindawo ye-photosynthetic yokugaya isichumisi, kodwa isityalo asinamagqabi kodwa siyayichumisa, emva koko izidlo ezimbalwa … “ezimnyama”.

Kufuneka sichumise kuphela xa amagqabi amatsha eluhlaza. Kwaye kufuneka ichunyiswe kuphela ngesitshizi samagqabi okanye ixutywe namanzi okunkcenkceshela. Ingaba siyankcenkceshela okanye sitshiza, ukuxinwa kwesichumisi kufuneka kube ngaphantsi kancinci ukuze kukhuseleke ukusika (kuba kuya kubakho amaqabunga aluhlaza angalinganiyo). Umzekelo: Izichumisi zekhemikhali (izichumisi zefoliar) zinefomula ye-30 – 10 – 10, idosi ebonisiweyo yi-1 gram exutywe ne-1 ilitha yamanzi, ifafazwe kanye ngeveki. Kodwa kufuneka sixube igram enye neelitha ezi-2 zamanzi kwaye sitshize kabini ngeveki.

Ngokukodwa kwizichumiso zamagqabi ezifana neprotein yentlanzi, iDynamic kufuneka ilinde de amagqabi avuthwe (aluhlaza mnyama) phambi kokuba asetyenziswe (kuba ngeli xesha izithole ziyaxhathisa). Ezi zichumisi zamagqabi zilungile kakhulu kwizityalo. Kodwa kwiimeko ze-nursery ezihlala zinomswakama ophezulu, kwakhona “i-bait elungileyo” yokungunda kunye neebhaktheriya. Ngoko ke, xa i-cuttings yomelele, sichumisa ezi zichumisi, kufuneka kwakhona zixutywe kunye neziyobisi zokukhusela, zombini zilungele kwaye zikhuselekile.


cuttings amasebe amasebe

Isicatshulwa somthi weAprikoti

Uvimba weDatha (Source): Incwadi yesiKhokelo engokukhuliswa kwemithi yeapilkosi etyheli-uMphathiswa wezoLimo noPhuhliso lwamaPhandle

Trả lời

Email của bạn sẽ không được hiển thị công khai. Các trường bắt buộc được đánh dấu *

Protected with IP Blacklist CloudIP Blacklist Cloud

0989796297