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Ukuphunyezwa Ubuchule bokulima kwemango yatsala umdla kakhulu imango zizityalo ezithandwa kakhulu kwilizwe lethu, zinexabiso eliphezulu kwezoqoqosho kwaye zisetyenziswa njengesiqhamo ukongeza izondlo zomzimba, njenge dessert kukutya kwemihla ngemihla, njengomthunzi, njengesityalo sokuhombisa.

Imango sisiqhamo esithandwayo kwaye sityiwa ngabantu abaninzi kuba iqulethe ixabiso lezondlo ezininzi, incasa emnandi eziswa yimango. Umthi wemango yinzalelwane yaseIndiya.

Kwilizwe lethu, abantu batyala imango etyalwe kulo lonke ilizwe, kodwa ubukhulu becala kwiMekong Delta, eMzantsi-mpuma…

Ukuze ukhulise imango enesivuno esiphezulu kunye nomgangatho olungileyo, kufuneka wazi iindlela zokutyala, indlela yokukhulisa nokunyamekela imithi yemango. Kwinqaku lanamhlanje, uFoo uza kukubonisa indlela yokukhulisa iimango kunye nendlela khulisa i-mango brand iziqhamo, isivuno esikhulu.

Iimfuno zomhlaba zokulima imango

Ngenxa yokuba imango ngumthi wetropikhi, kunokwenzeka ukulima imango kumaphondo amaninzi kwilizwe lethu, ezinye iimfuno eziyimfuneko zomhlaba zisetyenziselwa ukwenza. Isakhono khulisa imango inokukhankanywa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo

  • Iindidi zomhlaba ezifanelekileyo: Umhlaba obomvu webasalt, umhlaba ovundileyo, umhlaba omthubi, umhlaba wamandulo we-alluvial, umhlaba ongwevu, umhlaba omtsha we-alluvial ecaleni komlambo, … kodwa owona mhlaba ufanelekileyo nocetyiswayo ngumhlaba wesanti.
  • Umaleko wokulima kufuneka ube nobukhulu obuyi-1.5 ukuya kwi-2m ubuncinane
  • Umgangatho wamanzi aphantsi komhlaba kufuneka ubuncinci ube yi-2.5m ukusuka emhlabeni
  • Xa uthelekisa nezinye iindidi, imango ngumthi okwaziyo ukunyamezela ukuphuphuma kwamanzi nembalela, kwaye awuchaneki lula kwizifo zeengcambu.
  • I-pH efanelekileyo yokukhula kwemithi yemango ikuluhlu lwe-5.5 ukuya kwi-7.0. Ukuba i-pH ingaphantsi okanye ngaphezulu kweli nqanaba, isityalo siya kukhula kakubi, amanyathelo kufuneka athathwe ukuphucula umhlaba

Ubuchwephesha bokukhulisa imango

Nangona umhlaba ochumileyo unokunceda izityalo zikhule kakuhle, ngokwahlukileyo kwimithi yemango, umhlaba ongachumiyo kangako unceda lo mthi utyatyamba yaye ukhulisa amandla omthi wemango ukuze uthwale isiqhamo esingakumbi. Le yenye yeempawu ezahlulayo zodidi lwemango.

Kwimeko yokutyala imango kwiindawo ezihlala zikhukhula, kufuneka wenze iibhedi, ukwenzela ukuba ngexesha lokunyuka kwamanzi onyaka, kufuneka kubekho umgama ubuncinane we-1m ukusuka kumthi wemango.

Ixesha kunye nokuxinana kokutyala imango

Ixesha lokutyala lemango ikwangumba obaluleke kakhulu ekuphunyezweni kobuchule bokutyalwa kwemango, ukuqinisekisa ukuba umthi ungakhula kakuhle, uvelise iziqhamo ezisemgangathweni kunye nesivuno esikhulu, ungaphoswa lwazi oluyalelwa ngezantsi.

  • Ixesha lokutyala: Ngokubanzi, eyona ndlela ilungileyo yokutyala iimango kusekuqaleni kwexesha lemvula, kodwa ukuba unokukhuthala ekunkcenkcesheleni, ungatyala imango unyaka wonke, ukuba akukho ngxaki.Kufuneka kubekho kwakhona. iziganeko ezininzi zemozulu ezifana neqabaka, ingqele eyingozi, ingqele eqhaqhazelisa amazinyo…
  • Ukuxinana kokutyala imango: Uxinzelelo lokutyala imango lukholisa ukuba kuluhlu lwemithi engama-300 ukuya kuma-500 ngehektare nganye, okulingana nobukhulu obuyi-8x8m okanye i-10x10m, kodwa kumanqanaba okuqala ukuze usebenzise kakhulu indawo yokulima imango, kufuneka utyale iimango ezinoxinano olungqindilili. , emva koko uqhubele phambili ekunciphiseni ngokuthe ngcembe. Umgama wokuqala wokutyala imango ukholisa ukuba yi-5x6m

Ukukhethwa kweentlobo zemango

Okwangoku, kwiimarike kukho iintlobo ezininzi zeemango ezahlukeneyo, kufuneka ukhethe iindidi zemango ezinokuthengiswa kakuhle, ixabiso eliphezulu lokuthenga, ixesha elide lokugcinwa kunye nokugcinwa ngaphandle kokunciphisa umgangatho weziqhamo. ngasentla iimfuno ezifana:

  • Iindidi zemango zaseTaiwan
  • Iindidi zemango zaseThai
  • Njengeekota ezine zemango
  • Iindidi zemango zaseOstreliya
  • Hoa Loc isanti ezahlukeneyo zemango

Okwangoku, ezi ntlobo zithandwa kakhulu kwiimarike, ezikwazi ukudliwa ekhaya nakwamanye amazwe, zombini ziphuhliswa, zandiswa, kwaye isivuno sizinzile, esilungele kakhulu ukuba ukhethe. isityalo imango kunye nommandla omkhulu wezoqoqosho.

Indlela yokulima imango

Ukulungisa umhlaba wokutyala imango

Ngaphambi kokuqala ukuphumeza Ubuchule bokulima kwemango Kufuneka ulungiselele umhlaba kunye nemisebenzi emincinci kwangaphambili khulisa imango inokukhawuleza kwaye ilungele ngakumbi.

1, Umhlaba wokukhulisa imango

Umhlaba ukhethiwe khulisa imango kufuneka kucocwe kulo lonke ukhula, kulinywe ukwenza umhlaba ukhululeke, ukuba umhlaba utyalwe ngaphambili ezinye izityalo ezihlala ixesha elide, kuyimfuneko ukuba umhlaba uphumle kwiinyanga ezi-6 ukuya kwezi-12 ngaphambi kokuba uqale ukusebenza. isityalo imango.

Ngeli xesha, ungasebenzisa umhlaba ukuze ulime imifuno enemidumba, ikuncede wandise umvuzo wakho kunye nokuphucula isiqulatho senitrogen emhlabeni. Izidumbu zezi zityalo, emva kokuvuna, zisenokusetyenziswa ukwenza umgquba ohlaza emva koko kuphinde kuchunyiswe umhlaba.

2, umngxuma wokutyala imango

Kwimihlaba ethe tyaba okanye ethambekileyo ehambisa amanzi kakuhle, kufuneka ugrumbe imingxuma enemilinganiselo engama-60 x 60 x 60cm. Gcoba umngxuma ngamnye kunye nenani le-20 ukuya kwi-30 kg yomgquba + 0.1 kg ye-potassium + 1 kg ye-phosphorus + 0.5 kg ye-lime powder.

Qhubeka udibanisa kakuhle nomhlaba ongaphezulu kwaye ugcwalise umngxuma, emva koko uwunkcenkceshele. Ngaphakathi ungabetha ibhafu kunye neradiyasi ukusuka kwi-1m ukuya kwi-1.5m, ubunzulu obumalunga ne-20 ukuya kwi-30cm. Phakamisa umhlaba embindini webhafu.

Phawula: Ukulungiswa komngxuma wokutyala imango kufuneka kwenziwe ngexesha lokuhlwayela inyanga enye ukuya kwezi-2. Oku kunempembelelo yokunceda inkqubo ye-microbial ukuba ikhule, izondlo eziqulethwe kwisichumisi zichithwa kwaye zilungele ukunikezelwa kwi-mango tree.

Ityala isityalo imango Kwiindawo ezinezitiya ezinamanzi, imisele kunye namathambeka kufuneka agrunjwe. Idosi yesichumisi iyafana naxa kugrunjwa imingxuma.

Iindlela zokukhulisa imango ezisebenzayo

Ubuchwephesha bokukhulisa imango (izithole zezithole)

Indlela yokulima imango imiyalelo leyo ingezantsi mifutshane kakhulu kwaye kulula, ngokuyinxenye ngenxa yokuba esi sityalo kulula ukukhula. Nangona kunjalo, kweli nqanaba ungabamba indlela yokukhula, Ubuchule bokulima kwemango ukuze umthi ungachatshazelwa kakubi yiyo nayiphi na imiba.

  • Embindini womngxuma olungiselelwe ngaphambili wokutyala imango, sisebenzisa umhlakulo ukugrumba umngxuma omalunga ne-10cm ubukhulu kunobubanzi bendawo yokuzala.
  • Sebenzisa i-cutlery ukusika umaleko weplastiki we-nursery, ngobunono kwaye ukrazule imbiza ukunqanda ukophula imbiza.
  • Beka izithole zemango embindini womngxuma wokutyala ukuze intamo yeengcambu ilingane nomhlaba. Musa ukutyala iimango ngokunzulu kakhulu
  • Gcwalisa umhlaba ngexesha elinye usebenzisa iinyawo zakho ukucinezela kancinane umhlaba ojikelezileyo.
  • Phakamisa umhlaba kwisiseko ukunqanda amanzi amileyo
  • Xa ukutyalwa kwemango kugqityiwe, kuyimfuneko ukunkcenkceshela ngokukhawuleza umthi wemango kwaye umise izibonda zokulungisa umthi
  • Ukuba wenza Isakhono isityalo imango Ngexesha elomileyo, kuyimfuneko ukusebenzisa i-straw, i-hyacinth yamanzi, i-hay, i-rice husk … ukugubungela ingcambu ukunceda ukugcina umswakama womthi, umthi uya kukhula ngokukhawuleza.

Indlela yokukhulisa imango ngempumelelo

Ukukhathalela imithi yemango emva kokutyala

Inyathelo lokugqibela le Ubuchule bokulima kwemango Emva koko, ngeli nyathelo, kufuna ukuba uthathe ixesha kunye nomgudu wokunikela ingqalelo kumthi wemango.

Kufuneka ubeke iliso rhoqo umthi ukuze unqobe ngokukhawuleza imiphumo emibi edibana nayo umthi wemango, amanzi rhoqo kwaye uchumise ngeedosi ezifanelekileyo ukugcina umthi usempilweni kwaye ukhula kakuhle.

1, Nkcenkceshela umthi wemango

Ukunkcenkceshela kubaluleke kakhulu ngexesha elitsha lokutyala imango, ubuncinci ukusuka kwiintsuku ezi-3 ukuya kwezi-4 kufuneka unkcenkceshele kube kanye, emva koko unkcenkceshele ngokuphindaphindiweyo okuhluka ngokuxhomekeke kwimozulu, soloko uqinisekisa ukuba umhlaba Kukho ukufuma okwaneleyo malunga nesiseko ukuba isityalo asibuni.

Xa kufika ixesha lonyaka elomileyo, kububulumko ukugquma iingcambu ngeendiza, iintsalela zezityalo, nothuthu lwamakhatshu erayisi, njalo njalo, ukuze kuthintelwe ukhula nokunceda izityalo zibe nokufuma okwaneleyo ukuze zikhule. Xa umthi ungena kwixesha leshishini, iingcambu ziye zakhula kwaye zinzulu, zinkcenkceshela umthi imango kufuneka kuphela ingqalelo kwiminyaka eyomileyo ukufikelela kumanqanaba erekhodi kuphela.

2, Ukuhlakula

Kwimithi engapheliyo ngokubanzi kunye nemithi yemango ngokukodwa, idla ngokutyalwa kunye nomgama omncinci phakathi komthi ngamnye, ngoko umhlaba ongenanto ongezantsi kulula ukukhula ukhula.

Kwiminyaka yokuqala, xa i-mango canopy incinci, ingqwalasela ekhethekileyo kufuneka ihlawulwe kwi-weeding, i-4 ukuya ku-5 amaxesha ngonyaka, ngakumbi kwixesha lemvula. Kulumkele ukuvumela ukhula lukhule kakhulu, luxinene kakhulu, luthatha izondlo kunye nendawo yokukhula ngomthi wemango.

Indlela yokuchumisa ngokuhambelana neendlela zokukhulisa imango

Isicelo sesichumisi semango sinokuhlulwa sibe ngamanyathelo ama-2 ukuze kube lula ukuphunyezwa, oko kukuthi isigaba sokwakha kunye nesigaba soshishino.

Kwinqanaba lokwakha: Ukubeka phambili ukusetyenziswa kwezichumisi ze-NPK, ezizityebi kwiprotheni kunye ne-phosphorus ezinokuvuselela amasebe kunye neengcambu, kwaye umlinganiselo we-potassium kwisichumisi awufuni ukuba ube mkhulu. Rhoqo ngonyaka, kufuneka uchume ngokuphindaphindiweyo amaxesha ama-2 ukuya kwe-4, umthi ngamnye wemango kufuneka ufake inani elimalunga ne-0.5 kg yesichumisi se-NPK.

Kwinqanaba leshishini: Yongeza ubungakanani besichumisi se-mango stumps ukuya kwi-2 ukuya kwi-3 kg/umthi/ngonyaka. Ukwahlula ngamaxesha ama-3 ukuya kwe-4 yokuchumisa, kwixesha lokukhula kweziqhamo, kuyimfuneko yokongeza i-potassium yokwandisa isiqhamo kunye nokuqinisekisa umgangatho wemango.

Kule minyaka sinesivuno esihle, kunyaka olandelayo kufuneka sinyuse umthamo wesichumiso nge30 ukuya kwi 40% xa kuthelekiswa nonyaka odlulileyo ukunceda umthi ukuba ubuyele kwaye wandise isivuno.

Izichumisi zendalo: Unyaka ngamnye, kucetyiswa ukuba ungeze i-10 ukuya kwi-15 kg yomgquba kwisiphunzi ngasinye, ukuchumisa ngokumba imisele ngobunzulu obumalunga ne-20 ukuya kwe-30 cm, imisele enomgama we-1 ukuya kwi-2 m ukusuka kwingcambu, eyona ifanelekileyo isekelwe. Kuqikelelo lwe-canopy Umthi wemango, ixesha lokuqalisa ukuchumisa ekuqaleni kwexesha lemvula.

Ekubunjweni kwezichumisi eziphilayo ezisetyenziselwa ukuchumisa imithi yemango, kuyimfuneko ukuqinisekisa ukuba iqulethe i-antagonistic fungi ukunceda iingcambu zikhule ngamandla kwaye zinciphise izifo ze-fungi.

Isichumiso seMicronutrient: Ngobuchule bokukhulisa imango, galela esi sichumiso ngokugalela ezingcanjini okanye ngokusitshiza ngamagqabi, oko kwenziwa rhoqo ka-2 ukuya ku-3 ngonyaka, ngakumbi ngeli xesha umthi wemango untshula amagqabi amatsha kwaye uvelisa amagqabi amatsha. Inokudityaniswa nokutshiza ngezibulali zinambuzane ukunciphisa umsebenzi.

Chuba imithi yemango

Ukuthena amasebe ukwenza i-canopy yemithi yemango

Emva kokwenza Isakhono isityalo imango Emva kwexesha elithile (malunga neenyanga ezi-3) ukusuka kwihlumela elimiliselweyo ukuhluma amagqabi ama-3 (i-3 imigangatho yamagqabi), siqala ukwenza ukuhluma, ukusuka kwindawo esikhethayo ukwenza ihlumela, amaqabunga ambalwa aya kukhula. Amahlumelo ama-3 asempilweni ngokulinganayo ajikeleze isikhondo.

Kude kube la magqabi ama-3 akhule amagqabi ama-3, yenza okwesibini uyeke, qhubeka wenze oku kude kube lixesha lesithathu, yima kwaye uvumele umthi wemango ukhule ngokwendalo.

Unyaka ngamnye kufuneka uqhube ukuthenwa kwamasebe akhula nzulu kwi-canopy, amasebe amadala, amasebe anesifo, amasebe akhula ngokusondeleyo emhlabeni, amasebe exesha elidlulileyo, iziqu zeziqhamo, ukuthenwa kufuneka kuqhutywe ngokukhawuleza emva kokuQala. ukuvuna iimango.

Vuna kwaye ugcine imango

Ngokuqinisekileyo eli linyathelo enikhangele phambili kulo nonke ngexesha lokuphunyezwa Ubuchule bokulima kwemango kulungile, kodwa ungangxami kakhulu kwaye uphose ukuvuna iimango kwangethuba, ngokusekelwe kwixesha ukusukela oko watyala imango, iimpawu zesiqhamo, kwaye uqhubeke nokuvuna. Ngezantsi, iFao inemiyalelo eneenkcukacha, nceda wenze njalo.

Imango nganye inexesha lokuvuna elahlukileyo kwaye ixhomekeke kusetyenziso olucetywayo lomsebenzisi (iluhlaza okanye ivuthiwe), ngoko ke abantu bahlala bemisela ixesha lokuvuna imango ngokusekelwe kumava abo kwaye Qwalasela imango.

Ngokuqhelekileyo, xa udibana nemilinganiselo yokuvuna imango, ulusu lwesiqhamo luya kuba tyheli ngokuthe ngcembe, iziqhamo ezimbalwa zivuthwe ngokupheleleyo, zinevumba elimnandi.

Inqaku elincinci xa uvuna imango kukuba kufuneka ukha isiqu sonke, usebenzise izixhobo ezikhethekileyo zokukha imango, ukuphepha imeko yokuba isiqhamo siwe ukusuka phezulu ukuya emhlabeni, siya kugruzuka, sikrwelwe, sicuthe ixabiso lemveliso. .

Xa uthutha iimango kumgama omde, iimango kufuneka zifakwe kwiibhokisi ze-styrofoam, iikreyiti zeziqhamo, zipakishwe zingadluli kwi-5 layers, phakathi kwe layer nganye nesiqhamo ngasinye kufuneka zifakwe iindiza, iphepha okanye ugwebu olukhethekileyo lweziqhamo.

Ngoko siye safunda malunga indlela yokukhula, Ubuchule bokulima kwemango sele. Ngeli nqaku, iFao inethemba lokuba ungayikhulisa imithi yakho imango Isiqhamo esiluhlaza, esinencindi kunye nesivuno esiphezulu kanye egadini yakho. Umnqweno omhle.

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