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Inkqubo yobuchwephesha yokutyala i-Doi imithi yokufakela imbewu kunye neenkuni

Yazisa iimpawu zomthi, ukwahlula phakathi kwembewu nemithi

Doi Tree (elinye igama Gioi) Esi sityalo sihlala sihlala eVietnam, sisasazwa ikakhulu kumaphondo asezintabeni ezisenyakatho-ntshona kunye ne-Central Highlands yelizwe lethu.
Kwangexesha elide, abantu besithili saseLac Son, iphondo laseHoa Binh baye baziwa ngexabiso elikhulu lomthi we-doi, ngoko bawuzisa ekhaya baza bawutyala ekhaya.
Okwangoku, eLac Son, kukho imithi ye-doi enobomi obufikelela phantse kwikhulu leminyaka.

Iimpawu zomthi weDoi

  • UDoi ngumthi omkhulu osehlathini.
  • Imithi esele ikhulile ingangaphezulu kwe-30m ubude, isiqu sesiqu sibe ngaphezu kwe-1m.
  • Iziqu zithe tye, zingqukuva, kwaye zinamasebe aphezulu.
  • Umthi unevumba elikhethekileyo, ingqolowa egudileyo, igolide, iinkozo ezintle kwaye ezibukhali, iinkuni ezilula kunye nezizinzileyo, azikho iintubi, azikho i-warping, ngoko zinexabiso eliphezulu lezoqoqosho.
  • Abantu bahlala befumana umthi weDoi wokwakha izindlu (izindlu zamaplanga), ukwenza imigangatho yamaplanga, ukwenza ifenitshala okanye ukwenza iimveliso zobugcisa ezintle…
  • Ngaphandle kwamaplanga, abantu besizwe sakwaMuong apha basebenzisa imbewu ye-doi njengesinongo kunye neyeza.
  • Ixolo kunye nembewu yeGuava ineempembelelo ezininzi ekunyangeni iintlungu zesisu, njengento evuselela ukutya, ukunyanga ukuqunjelwa, ukuqunjelwa kunye luncedo ekunyangeni umkhuhlane.
  • I-oyile ebalulekileyo ekhutshwe kwimbewu kunye nentlama yesiqhamo iqulethe i-safrol 70.2% (i-pulp yeziqhamo) kunye ne-72.9% (imbewu) kunye ne-methyl eugenol 18.5% (imbewu), i-24.2% (i-pulp yeziqhamo). I-oyile ebalulekileyo ekhutshwe kwisiqu iqulethe i-camphor 23.8% kunye ne-safrol 14.3%.
  • Indlela yokusebenzisa imbewu ye-doi yenza isinongo sifane naxa sisebenzisa ipepile (kodwa inevumba elimnandi kakhulu).
  • Umthi umdala, uya kunika imbewu eninzi kwaye imbewu iya kuba nevumba elimnandi kwaye imnandi.
  • Xa sivuthiwe, isiqhamo siyakugqabhuka sivuleleke kwimbewu ye Doi ebomvu evuthiweyo.
  • Imbewu ye-Doi ilingana nembewu yombona, xa yomisiwe, itshintsha ukusuka kubomvu ukuya kumbala wamaphela okanye kumnyama omenyezelayo.

Iimbewu zomthi weDoi

Ukwahlula umthi ngembewu kunye nomthi womthi

Abantu abaninzi babhekisa kumthi we-doi becinga ukuba lo mthi luhlobo olunokuqokelela zombini iimbewu kunye neenkuni, kodwa eneneni kukho iindidi ezi-2 ze-doi.
Doi ukutya imbewu (Michelia tonkinensis) kunye ne-mulberry eluhlaza (Michelia mediocris). Imbewu yesityalo sedoi eluhlaza ayityiwa kuba iyakrakra.

Inundu elitya imbewu (Michelia tonkinensis)

  • Amagqabi angenawo amanxeba ancamathele kwi petioles; iikhapeli zimbalwa, ngokuqhelekileyo zingaphantsi kwe-10, kwaye i-megaloblastics ekhula kwiziqhamo ezivuthiweyo zimbalwa, zihlala zingaphantsi kwe-8 ubukhulu bamagqabi amancinci kunamagqabi aluhlaza (6.0-13 x 5.0-5.5 cm), i-ovate eguquguqukayo.

Ichaphaza eliBlue (Michelia mediocris)

  • Ifana ngokusondeleyo neentlobo zegioi ezitya imbewu ngokwendlela yokumila kwamagqabi, ehlala i-ovate okanye iguqulwe.
  • Nangona kunjalo, iyahluka kwi-seed-eder: i-cylindrical pistil ende ene-15-20 carpels eyahlukileyo kubantu abadala abaqolileyo, ngokuphindaphindiweyo ngaphezu kwe-10, i-ovoid, ngaphandle kwesiqu seziqhamo kwaye ngaphandle kwesinqe, olu hlobo luthathwa kuphela iinkuni.
  • Ngoko ke, kuxhomekeke kwinjongo yokutyala, khetha umthi we-doi osemgangathweni

Lungisa izithole phambi kokutyala.

  • Imithi ye-Doi ekhuliswe kwimbewu iya kuvuna iziqhamo emva kweminyaka eyi-7-9
  • Izityalo ezikhuliswe kuhlobo olumiliselweyo ziya kuvunwa emva kweminyaka emi-3-4.
  • Imithi ye-doi etyaliwe iyakwazi ukuzihlaziya ukusuka kwimbewu okanye kwihlumela, kodwa izinga lisezantsi kakhulu, kuphela yi-30-40 yemithi ngehektare nganye.
  • Imbewu ihlwayelwa kwiinyanga ezi-8-10 ngaphambi kokuhlwayela, nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yokulahlekelwa ngokukhawuleza kwamandla okuntshula, emva kokuvuna, imbewu ingahlwayelwa ngokukhawuleza ukunyusa izinga lokuntshula kwembewu.

Ukuhlwayela imbewu ye-doi

  • Imbewu iphathwa ngale ndlela ilandelayo: cwilisa imbewu emnyama emanzini iiyure ezingama-4-6, uze uyikhuphe, uyihlambe, uyifake kwisikhwama selaphu iintsuku ezingama-7-10. batyalwa ezimbizeni.
  • Iqokobhe lenziwe ngePolyethylene enemilinganiselo eyi-10x18cm, igqobhozekile kumngxuma wokuhambisa amanzi.
  • Indawo yokubeka imbiza inereyithi ye-89% ye-nursery okanye umhlaba wehlathi, i-10% yomgquba wasefama, i-1% ye-NPK ene-5:10:5 okanye i-10:10:5 ukubunjwa.
  • Emva kweenyanga ezi-2 ukunkcenkceshela yonke imihla ukufuma okwaneleyo.
  • Isisombululo sokunkcenkceshela se-NPK (5:10:5) i-concentration ye-0.5%, kunye ne-dosage ye-2 ilitha nge-1m2, okanye ukunkcenkceshela umgquba ohlanjululweyo.
  • Emva kokuchumisa, kufuneka inkcenkceshelwe kwakhona ngamanzi ukuhlamba amagqabi.
  • Xa izithole ziku-10-15cm ubude, izityalo ezisezimbizeni zidityaniswa nokuhlelwa kobude ukuze kugcinwe izityalo ezingakhuliswanga kakuhle.
  • Ngethuba leenyanga ezi-3-4, qhubeka ujikeleza iimbiza kwaye uhlele izityalo zokunyamekela de zityalwe.
  • Emva kweenyanga ezi-4 zokuqhawula i-canopy,
  • Kwinyanga ye-6, susa ngokupheleleyo isigqubuthelo,
  • Yeka ukunkcenkceshela kwiiveki ezi-3-4 phambi kokutyala.
  • Ukuthintela ukungunda, isifo kufuneka sisebenzise i-Benlat C 0.05% yoxinaniso etshizwe ebhedini kwiveki enye phambi kwezityalo.
  • Ngamaxesha athile rhoqo emva kweentsuku eziyi-10-15, fafaza kube kanye ngesixa sokutshiza seelitha ezi-2 nge-1m2.
  • Izithole emazityalwe kufuneka zibeneenyanga ezisibhozo ukuya kwezilishumi, ubude obuyi 40-50cm, zibe nobubanzi beengcambu obuyi 0.3-0.5cm, ukukhula okuqhelekileyo, amagqabi aluhlaza, iziqu ezithe tye, kungabikho zinambuzane.
  • umthi weziqhamo

    Lungisa umhlaba wokutyala

    • IGoose eluhlaza Ikhule kwiindawo ezinobushushu bonyaka obuphakathi kwama-20 ukuya kuma-25oC, umyinge wemvula yonyaka yi-1500-2500 mm,
    • Umthi usasazeke kwindawo ezineentaba ngaphantsi kwe 700m ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle kumahlathi ashinyene amagqabi aluhlaza. Indlulamthi eluhlaza ithanda umhlaba onzulu, ofumileyo nongenamanzi. Ikhula kwiintlobo ngeentlobo zemihlaba ye-feralit ekhula kwi-gnai, i-micasite, i-clay schist, i-mica schist, i-acid magma.
    • Bahlala bahlala bexutywe neentlobo ezifana ne-Lim sept, i-Rang rat jackfruit, i-Re, i-Ngat (eMantla) okanye kunye ne-Rota, i-Thong Nang, i-Tram, i-Vang, i-Gie (kwi-Central Highlands).
    • Izityalo ezithanda ukukhanya, ukukhula ngokukhawuleza, ukuveliswa kwembewu entle.
    • Izithole zinyamezela umthunzi okhanyayo.
    • Ityalwe kwihlathi elihlwempuzekileyo (IIIa1), ihlathi elincinci (IIa) okanye kwi-scrubland enemithi ehlakazekileyo.

    Ixesha lokutyala:

    Amaphondo aseMntla atyala kwisityalo saseNtwasahlobo okanye ekuqaleni kweHlobo ukusuka ngoMatshi ukuya kuJuni; ummandla waseMntla weCentral otyalwe ngo-Oktobha-Novemba; Ummandla osemzantsi-mpuma, kuNxweme olukuMbindi oseMazantsi kunye neNdawo eziPhakamileyo ezityalwe ngoJuni-Agasti.

    Ubugcisa bokutyala umthi wedoi

    Khulisa ngeteyiphu.

    • Faka isicelo kumahlathi ahluphekileyo, ukungabikho kokuvuselelwa kunye namahlathi amancinci abuyiselwe emva kokulima ngokutshintsha.
    • Umkhenkce uyilwe kwicala leMpuma-ntshona okanye ecaleni komgca wecontour kunye nomhlaba onethambeka elikhulu kune-15.o.
    • Ukutyala izinto ezinomaleko wemithi 8-10m ukuphakama, sasaza ibhande lokutyala libe yi-5-6m ububanzi, ushiye amabhandeji angama-8-10m. Ukutyala izinto ezinomthi we-12-15m ukuphakama, usasaze i-tape ukuya kwi-7-8m kwaye ushiye i-10-12m.
    • Abalimi abanemithi engaphezulu kwe-15m ukuphakama kufuneka behlise i-canopy ibe ngaphantsi kwe-15m, basasaze ibhande lokutyala nge-7-8m ububanzi, lishiye i-10-12m ububanzi.
    • Umngxuma 40x40x40 cm kwinyanga enye phambi kokutyala, gcwalisa umngxuma kwiintsuku eziyi-10-15 phambi kokutyala.
    • Kwibhanti ngalinye, tyala umqolo wemithi kumgama oyi-4 m ukusuka emthini.

    Ukutyala ngokwamaqela:

    • Faka isicelo kwihlathi elihlwempuzekileyo okanye ihlathi elincinci elibuyiselweyo, kodwa kumanani ehlathi anendawo encinci ye-200m2.
    • Kwiintlobo zezityalo, imifuno inqunywe kwisiseko, inqunyulwe, ihanjiswe ngaphandle, inqunyulwe okanye ibulale imithi engekho yezoqoqosho kunye nobubanzi obungaphezu kwe-10cm, ishiya imithi ehlaziyiweyo kunye nemithi emikhulu yezoqoqosho.
    • Ihlathi elijikeleze umngxuma kufuneka ligawulwe imidiliya, okanye imithi engeyoqoqosho enecanopy enkulu ichaphazela izityalo ezikwiqela.
    • Umngxuma 40x40x40cm phambi kokutyala ubuncinane inyanga e-1, gcwalisa umngxuma kwiintsuku eziyi-10-15 phambi kokutyala.
    • Kwiqela, cwangcisa imithi ngokulinganayo kumgama we-4mx 4m.

    Ukugawulwa kwamahlathi kwishishini elikhulu lamaplanga:

    • Faka isicelo kumatyholo afunyenwe emva kokutshintshwa kokulima okanye umhlaba wehlathi emva kokuxhatshazwa.
    • Ukutyala iintlobo ezixubileyo phakathi kweGreen Goi kunye neAcacia acacia okanye iAcacia hybrid, ukutyala umqolo omnye weGioi oxutywe nomqolo omnye wokuxhasa iAcacia.
    • Apho umhlaba uthe tyaba, imijelo yokutyala iyilwe ngakwicala laseMpuma-ntshona
    • Iindawo ezinomphakamo ongaphezulu kwe-15o uyilo lomgca wecontour
    • Cacisa, unqumle, ucande kwaye ususe uhlaza kwindawo yokutyala, ushiya kuphela uhlaziyo kunye nenjongo yemithi
    • Ubungakanani bomngxuma 60x60x60 cm kwiindawo ezithe tyaba okanye 40x40x40 cm kumathambeka angaphezu kwe-15.o,
    • Ukumba imingxuma kwinyanga eyi-1 kwangaphambili, ukugcwalisa imingxuma kwiintsuku ezili-15 kwangaphambili.
    • Kumjelo ngamnye, umqolo wegioi eluhlaza utyalwe embindini womjelo onomgama we-4x4m, iintlobo ze-acacia kumgama we-3x3m.

    umthi we nutmeg

    Ukutyala umthi we-doi

    Sika imbiza phambi kokutyala, musa ukuyophula imbiza, beka isityalo ngqo embindini womngxuma, gcwalisa umngxuma ngomhlaba, uwuhlanganisele embizeni, yakha umaleko womhlaba ongaphezulu kwintamo yeengcambu.
    Kwinyanga enye emva kokutyala, jonga indawo yokutyala izityalo ezifileyo.
    Emva kweenyanga ezi-3 zokwenza uvavanyo lokwamkelwa, izinga lokusinda elingaphezu kwe-90% lihlangabezane neemfuno.

    Imiyalelo yesiqhelo yonyaka yokhathalelo

    Amahlathi alinyiweyo akhathalelwa iminyaka emi-5 elandelelanayo:
    Unyaka wokuqala:
    Emva kweenyanga ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-3 zokutyala, uhlaza olucacileyo, imidiliya kunye nokhula luhlasela imithi esandul’ ukutyalwa, luhlakulele kwaye luhlakulwe umhlaba ojikeleze isiphunzi esi-1m ububanzi.
    Unyaka wesibini: unakekele amaxesha ama-3
    Ngexesha lokuqala ekuqaleni kwesityalo sasentwasahlobo, khulisa imidiliya kunye nezihlahla zokuhlasela izityalo.
    Kwityeli lesibini ekuqaleni kwexesha lemvula, hlakula malunga nengcambu phakathi kwe-1m, udibanise nesichumisi se-NPK (5:10:3) kunye nomlinganiselo we-200g / isityalo. Kwisihlandlo sesithathu, ukususa uhlaza, imidiliya namatyholo ihlasela izityalo ekupheleni kwexesha leemvula.
    Unyaka wesithathu: 2 amaxesha ukhathalelo
    Ngexesha lokuqala ekuqaleni kwesityalo sasentwasahlobo, ukucoca uhlaza, imidiliya kunye nezihlahla zihlasela izityalo.
    Okwesibini, ukutyala uhlaza, imidiliya, ukulima iingcambu ezidityaniswe nokufakwa kwesichumiso seNPK njengonyaka wesibini.
    Kwiminyaka emi-2-3 emva kokutyala, xa ubona ukuba i-canopy yomthi oxhasayo ichaphazela ukukhula komthi wendlulamthi, kuyimfuneko ukulungelelanisa ukuxinana kwemithi exhasayo.
    Unyaka wesine nowesihlanu, ukhathalelo ixesha eli-1/ngonyaka.
    Imixholo yokhathalelo ibandakanya ukukhula komdiliya, amatyholo, amatyholo, ukususa izitshabalalisi kunye nezifo, kunye nemithi engeyiyo injongo enecanopy enkulu echaphazela izityalo ezikhule kumkhenkce kunye nemingxuma.

    Ulawulo lwezinambuzane kumthi we-doi

    Zimbini iindidi zezinambuzane ezitshabalalisayo: intlala yamagqabi kunye nentshulube zombini kwiindawo ezigcina abantwana kunye nakumasimi.
    + Ukucheba: Imibungu yokucheba iinwele igqobhoze esiqwini, ukunqunqa iinwele kuba kuluma amaxolo, ukwaphuka amasebe, ukunciphisa ukukhula nokubulala umthi.
    + I-Stem borers: Iibhore ezincinci zophula imiphezulu, zinciphisa ukukhula kwezityalo.
    – Olona khuselo lusebenzayo kukujonga rhoqo kwaye ubambe iintshulube kusasa. Ukongeza, iikhemikhali eziqhelekileyo nazo zingasetyenziswa.
    + Uthintelo lweentubi: (Sebenzisa i-LORSBANE-50EC okanye i-SUMICIDINE-20EC) iilitha ezi-4 zamayeza axutywe neelitha ezingama-70 zamanzi – atshizwe emngxunyeni kwiintsuku eziyi-10-15 phambi kokutyala.
    + Uthintelo lweqakamba: Sebenzisa isithiyelo esiquka i-90% yebran yerayisi egcadiweyo + 10% yomgquba wamahashe, iinkomo ezomileyo + 11/000 BADAN-95 sp, iipellets zesoya, ufefe iicapsules ezi-2 nganye emva kokutyala.

    Ukuvuna kwangaphambili kunye nokugcinwa kwembewu ye-doi

    Singaqokelela isiqhamo ngokukha isiqhamo esijikeleze isiseko okanye sisebenzise ipali ukuthoba isiqhamo.
    Iziqhamo ezomileyo, ezihlulwe kwimbewu, zigcinwe kwindawo eyomileyo, xa zisetyenzisiwe, zosiwe kwaye ziphantsi zibe ngamaqhekeza amancinci.

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