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1. Ukunkcenkceshela kunye nokuzaliseka komnqweno

1.1. Ukunkcenkceshela umthi weapilkosi omthubi

Umthi we-apricot awunyamezeli ukukhutshwa kwamanzi, kuba i-taproot ye-apricot ide kakhulu, ngoko ke ukuba amanzi aphuphuma ixesha elide, iingcambu ziya kubola, zibangele ukuba umthi ufe. Ukongeza kwi taproot, umthi weapilkosi uneengcambu zeapilkosi ezingenakubalwa ezikhula entanyeni yeengcambu, ezinoxanduva lokufunxa izondlo kumhlaba ongaphezulu ukondla umthi. Ingcambu yowesifazane ebolileyo okanye ephukileyo ayikwazi ukukhula ixesha elide, kodwa iingcambu zihluke, ukuba zinqunywe, ziya kukhula kwakhona, ngoko ke inkqubo yeengcambu nayo idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekukhuleni nasekuphuhliseni ama-apricot.

Ngeeapilkosi ezityalwe egadini, ukunkcenkceshela kanye ngosuku okanye yonke enye imini kulungile. Ukunkcenkceshela ngokuthe ngqo kwisiseko kwaye utshize amanzi ngejethi encinci kuwo wonke amahlamvu. Ukunkcenkceshela kufuneka kwenziwe kwakusasa (phambi kwentsimbi yesi-9 kusasa) okanye emva kwemini epholileyo. Ngexesha leemvula, kulungile ukutyala iiapilkosi egadini ngaphandle kokunkcenkceshela, ngaphandle kwakwiintsuku ezininzi ezinde, ezishushu, kufuneka zinkcenkceshelwe ukuze umhlaba ufume.

Izityalo zokuhombisa ezikhule kwiimbiza zihlala zoma kuba umhlaba osembizani umncinci kakhulu ukugcina ukufuma ixesha elide. Ngoko ke, izityalo zokuhombisa ezikhulile kwiimbiza kufuneka zinkcenkceshelwe yonke imihla, zinkcenkceshelwe kabini ngosuku (ekuseni, emva kwemini) Kufuneka ubeke ingqalelo ukurhoxiswa kwamanzi kwimbiza nganye, ukuba kukho ukugxobhoza kwamanzi, sebenzisa intonga encinci ukuyisusa ngokukhawuleza. kungekudala afe ngenxa yeengcambu ezonakeleyo.

Iikhabhathi zeengcambu zisengumlinganiselo olungileyo wokugcina ukufuma komhlaba uzinzile, ukugcina ukusebenza okusebenzayo komaleko weengcambu ezithe tye kufutshane nomhlaba, ukunciphisa inani lamaxesha okunkcenkceshela, ukuphepha ukhula ngexesha lonyaka elomileyo kwaye unciphise ukuchaphaza komhlaba ngenxa yemvula nembalela. inqanda ukusasazeka kweentsholongwane emhlabeni.

Xa i-mulch ibola, iba ngumthombo wezondlo zezityalo kwaye iphucula iimpawu zomhlaba ngendlela enenzuzo. Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba le mulch yendalo ikwayindawo elungileyo yokuba iintubi zikhule kwaye izinambuzane eziyingozi zizifihle. Ngoko ke, ukubeka iliso rhoqo kuyimfuneko ukuthatha amanyathelo okukhusela xa kuyimfuneko.

Umthombo wamanzi okunkcenkceshela: Sebenzisa amanzi acocekileyo (abonelelwe ngemveliso yezolimo) xa unkcenkceshela. Ukuba usebenzisa amanzi etephini, kufuneka kubekho isikhongozeli sokukhuphela amanzi etankini ubuncinane kusuku olu-01 phambi kokunkcenkceshela.

Indlela yokunkcenkceshela imithi yeapilkosi etyheli

Ukunkcenkceshela ngumlinganiselo obalulekileyo wobugcisa ochaphazela kakhulu umgangatho wezityalo. Ngokuxhomekeke kwiimeko ezithile (inkunzi, ixesha …) ezikhetha indlela yokunkcenkceshela efanelekileyo. Nazi iindlela zokunkcenkceshela imithi yeapilkosi emthubi:

PP1. Ukunkcenkceshela: Le ndlela ilula kakhulu, yongeza nje amanzi kwisistim somsele wegadi.

– Sebenzisa izixhobo zezandla ezifana netanki yeshawa, sebenzisa impompo enethumbu leplastiki elithambileyo elincanyatheliswe kwintloko yeshawa… nkcenkceshela ingcambu nganye, imbiza nganye, uqinisekise ukufuma okwaneleyo kwegolide.


Ukukhathalela imithi yeapilkosi emthubi 01

Amanzi kwiiapilkosi ezityheli


Ukukhathalela imithi yeapilkosi emthubi 02


Amanzi kwiiapilkosi ezityheli

PP2. Ukunkcenkceshela ngokuthontsiza kwimithi yeapilkosi etyheli

I-Drip irrigation yindlela yokunkcenkceshela ethi ingene kancinane emhlabeni, ivumela amanzi ukuba aye ngqo kwiingcambu, ngaphandle kokumosha amanzi kwiindawo ezingakhuliyo.


* I-advanteji:

– Umlinganiselo omncinci wamanzi okunkcenkceshela.

– Ilahleko encinci yamanzi ngenxa yomoya nelanga.

– Akukho mfuneko yoxinzelelo olukhulu lokubonelela ngamanzi, ukunciphisa ukhula.

• Unokufaka isichumiso ngenkqubo yokunkcenkceshela, ukonga isichumiso kunye nokusebenza.


*Isiphene: Iindleko zokuqala eziphezulu.

1.2. Khupha amanzi kwigadi yeapilkosi etyheli

Ukuthuthwa kwamanzi okanye ukuthuthwa kwamanzi linyathelo lobuchwephesha lokunciphisa amanzi amaninzi amileyo kumhlaba wentsimi, anokuchaphazela ubomi, ukukhula kunye nesivuno sezityalo.

Ukuphuma kwamanzi emhlabeni kukwabalulekile ekuphuculeni umhlaba, ukuhlanjwa kwetyuwa, ukukhutshelwa kwealum, ukungena komoya kumaleko weengcambu kunye nokunciphisa iintsholongwane eziyingozi kwizityalo.

Ukukhutshwa kwamanzi ngamanye amaxesha kuyimfuneko ukuququzelela ukuhamba kwentsimi okanye umatshini.

a. Iinzuzo zokukhupha amanzi ngexesha

– Dala umoya wokungenisa umoya emhlabeni, izityalo zifunxa ioksijini ngokulula;

– Xa umgangatho wamanzi omhlaba uthotyiwe, kulula ukuba iingcambu zezityalo zikhule nzulu kwaye zifunxe izondlo ezininzi emhlabeni;

– Umhlaba owomileyo unceda abantu kunye nezixhobo zoomatshini zishukume ngokulula ukukhathalela izityalo;

– I-microorganisms ye-aerobic esebenzayo kakhulu yenza ukubola kwezinto eziphilayo emhlabeni ngokukhawuleza, ukukhuthaza inkqubo ye-nitrification (iproteolysis);

– Ukukhutshwa kwamanzi kuya kuthintela ukukhula kweentsholongwane kunye nezinambuzane;

– Indlela efanelekileyo yokukhupha amanzi inokunciphisa ukhukuliseko lomhlaba.


Ukukhathalela imithi yeapilkosi emthubi 03


Ukukhupha amanzi akulixesha elifanelekileyo kwigadi yeapilkosi etyheli


Ukunyamekela imithi ye-apricot


Igadi yeapilkosi etyheli izele ngamanzi


Ukunyamekela imithi ye-apricot


Igadi yeapilkosi etyheli izele ngamanzi


Ukunyamekela imithi ye-apricot


Igadi yeapilkosi etyheli izele ngamanzi


Ukunyamekela imithi ye-apricot


Igadi yeapilkosi etyheli izele ngamanzi

b. Uyilo lwesixokelelwano sokuhambisa amanzi Kukho iindlela ezimbini eziphambili zokukhupha amanzi:

– Inkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi phezu komhlaba (eyaziwa ngoku kwimveliso): Faka isicelo sokukhupha amanzi xa kukho imvula eninzi okanye izandyondyo zemvula/umlambo ophuphumayo obangela izikhukula kumphezulu wegadi.

Ngokuqhelekileyo, indlela yokukhupha i-gravity isetyenziswa, amanzi aya kuhamba ngokuzenzekelayo kwicala lokuhamba ukusuka phezulu ukuya kwiindawo eziphantsi (umsele wokukhupha amanzi). Ukuba umthombo wamanzi mkhulu kakhulu, kufuneka ube nedikhi kwaye usebenzise impompo ukukhupha amanzi.


Ukukhathalela imithi yeapilkosi 08

Inkqubo yokwetyisa


Unakekele umthi weapilkosi omthubi 09


Inkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi kwigadi ye-apricot

– Inkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi angaphantsi komhlaba (okwangoku ayikadunyiswa): Isetyenziswa kakhulu xa amanzi aphantsi komhlaba enyuka (ngenxa yemvula, izikhukula, amaza) abangela ukuphuphuma kwamanzi kwiingcambu zezityalo.

Kwiinkqubo zokuhambisa amanzi angaphantsi komhlaba, eyona ndlela ixhaphakileyo kukusebenzisa imibhobho yogutyulo egqitywe phantsi kweengcambu zomthi kwaye iqokelele amanzi kwimibhobho emva koko iphume ngempompo okanye ukuzihambisa ngokwakho (Umfanekiso 2.3.28).

Imijelo ehambisa amanzi angaphantsi komhlaba inokuba luncedo lokhukuliseko olungaphantsi kunemibhobho yamanzi, kodwa iindleko zotyalo-mali kunye nokugcinwa kwazo ziya kuba phezulu.


Ukunyamekela imithi ye-apricot

Inkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi angaphantsi komhlaba

Amanye amanqaku xa ulungiselela imijelo yokuhambisa amanzi:

+ Indlela yokuhambisa amanzi kufuneka ibekwe kwindawo ephantsi ukuze ikwazi ukugxila ngokulula emanzini ngokuhamba komxhuzulane;

+ Umjelo wokuhambisa amanzi kufuneka ube mfutshane ukukhupha ngokukhawuleza amanzi ngaphandle kwendawo ukuba ikhutshwe kunye nokunciphisa umthamo wokwakha;

+ Kuthintele ukuvumela umjelo wamanzi ukuba udlule kwiindawo ezinemiqobo emininzi, ulwakhiwo kunye neendawo ezinomhlaba ongazinzanga.

+ Thatha ngokucokisekileyo ithuba lemilambo yendalo kunye nemijelo yokwenza imijelo yamanzi; ukuba kuyimfuneko, imisele kunye nemijelo inokugrunjwa ukuze isebenze njengendawo yokufumana ilindle;

+ Kuyenzeka ukudibanisa imijelo yokuhambisa amanzi kunye nemijelo – imijelo yezithuthi.


Ukukhathalela imithi yeapilkosi emthubi 11

Ukuchasana nokukhukula kwiiapilkosi ezisezimbiza

c. Ukubuyiselwa kwamabhoma emva kwezikhukula


Ukukhathalela imithi yeapilkosi emthubi 12

Iapilkosi etyheli yonakaliswe zizikhukula

Emva kokuba umyezo we-apricot ophuzi uphuphuma, ukuba awukhathalelwanga ngokufanelekileyo, inkqubo yobugcisa iya kuchaphazela lula ukukhula kunye nophuhliso lomthi. Ngoko ke, la manyathelo okulungisa alandelayo kufuneka asetyenziswe:

– Sebenzisa igaba, impungutye ukugrumba umhlaba ujikeleze umthi ukophula umhlwa, uncede umhlaba ukuba ube nomoya.

– Yomba umsele ukuze amanzi aphume ngokukhawuleza kwigadi yeziqhamo.

– Musa ukufaka izichumisi zekhemikhali ngqo kwingcambu ukuba igadi isandula ukukhukuliseka ixesha elide.

– Kucetyiswa ukuba kusetyenziswe izichumisi zamagqabi eziqulethe zonke izondlo eziyimfuneko kwizityalo ezifana ne: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe… ukutshiza emagqabini nakwiziqu. Sika amasebe amatsha kwaye ashiye ngaphandle ngexesha igadi izaliswe ngamanzi.

– Kunokwenzeka ukusebenzisa i-DAP kunye ne-potassium sulphate fertilizers kunye nomlinganiselo: i-2 inxalenye ye-DAP, i-1 inxalenye ye-potassium sulfate ixube kakuhle, uze uthathe kwi-50-100g echithwe kwiilitha ezingama-20-30 zamanzi kwaye ufefe ngokulinganayo kumagqabi.

• Kufuneka kunikwe ikalika eyongezelelekileyo egadini ngeli xesha ngedosi ye-50-100g kwingcambu nganye.

Nika ingqalelo kunyango lwezifo zefungal kwiingcambu kunye neengcambu kunye neziyobisi ezifanelekileyo.

2. Chuba imithi yeapilkosi emthubi

Ukuze iiapilkosi zikhule, zikhule kakuhle, kwaye zinike iintyatyambo ezintle, kuyimfuneko ukuchumisa, ngakumbi kwizityalo ezineembiza.

2.1. Ixesha lokuchumisa imithi yeapilkosi etyheli

Emva kokutyala malunga neentsuku ezili-10-15, umthi uqala ukuhluma, ukuchumisa, umjikelo wokuchumisa ngokuphindaphindiweyo malunga neentsuku ezingama-20-30 kuxhomekeke kwiimeko kunye nesigaba sokukhula somthi.

2.2. Isichumisi semithi yeapilkosi etyheli

– Izichumisi enye ezifana: Urea, Superphosphate, Potassium

– Izichumisi ezixutywe ezifana ne: NPK 20 – 20 – 15, NPK 20 – 20 – 15 + TE, NPK 16 – 12 – 8 – 11 + TE, NPK 16 – 16 – 8, …

– Izichumisi eziphilayo ezibolileyo: Inkunkuma yelulwane, iikeyiki ze-oyile, umgquba, umgquba oluhlaza… zinezi ziphumo zilandelayo: Ukudala izithinteli, ukuzinzisa ubumuncu bomhlaba, ukwandisa ukusebenza kakuhle kwezichumisi ezingaphiliyo. Yenza umhlaba ube ne-porous, ugcine ukufuma kakuhle, ukwandisa ukuchuma. Ukudala indawo efanelekileyo yokuba iintsholongwane zikhule kwaye zisebenze kwandisa ukuxhathisa kwezifo kwizityalo. Ixabiso eliphantsi.

Nangona kunjalo, kukho imida efana nale: Ukusebenza okucothayo. Kunzima, kunzima ukuthutha. Umxholo wezondlo ophantsi, ongazinzanga, kunzima ukuwulawula. Ukuphucula isiqulatho sesondlo somgquba, kuyacetyiswa ukuba usebenzise iintsalela zezityalo ezikhoyo ukuze ugcwalise umgquba kunye nomgquba phambi kokusetyenziswa.

2.3. Indlela yesichumisi, isixa sesichumisi semithi yeapilkosi etyheli

I-Fertilizer NPK 20 – 20 – 15 ihlanjululwe ukunkcenkceshela, inani lesichumisi elisetyenziswe ukusuka kwi-50 – 100 gr / 15-20 ilitha zamanzi, malunga neentsuku ezingama-15-20 zokunkcenkceshela.

Xa iapilkosi inkulu, isixa sesichumiso sinyuka ngokuthe ngcembe kwaye ikhefu phakathi kwamaxesha okufakwa kwezichumisi lide. Uhlobo lwesichumisi olufanelekileyo kwi-apricot yi-NPK 20 – 20 – 15 + TE okanye i-NPK 16 – 12 – 8 – 11 + TE. Umthamo wesichumisi ungama 20 – 50 gr/ingcambu/ixesha, malunga neentsuku ezingama-20 – 30 zokugalela kanye.

Xa iintyatyambo ze-apricot zizinzile: Unyaka ngamnye, kuyimfuneko ukongeza isichumisi esiphilayo ukusuka kwi-5 ukuya kwi-10 kg / ingcambu. Sebenzisa isichumisi i-NPK 20 – 20 – 15 + TE okanye i-NPK 16 – 12 – 8 – 11 + TE ifake malunga namaxesha angama-3-4 ngonyaka kunye nomlinganiselo ofanayo wesichumisi kwezi zigaba zilandelayo: emva kokuba iintyatyambo ziphelile (emva kweholide yeTet), amasebe okuthena; ukuqala kwexesha lemvula; phakathi kwexesha lemvula nangaphambi kokuba i-apricot iqhakaze malunga ne-1 – 1.5 iinyanga. Kuyimfuneko ukuchumisa emingxunyeni, kwi-grooves enobunzulu be-5-7 cm ngokwamagqabi omthi, faka kwindawo eneengcambu ezininzi ezikhulayo, uze ugcwalise umhlaba, ugcine umanzi ngexesha elomileyo, uvule. ingcambu ngexesha lemvula.

Emva kokuthena ukumila, kufuneka sichumise i-apricot ukuze ikhule kakuhle kumasebe kunye namagqabi. Ngeli xesha, idinga i-nitrogen kunye ne-phosphorus, i-potassium encinci ilungile. Unokusebenzisa isichumiso se-20 – 20 – 15 TE NPK, ukulima umhlaba ukuba uchumise, ubuyisele umva. Umthamo wesichumisi ngexesha ngalinye awufuni kakhulu: malunga ne-40 – 50 g / imbiza equlethe i-50 – 60 kg yomhlaba (kwizityalo ezikhuliswe ngaphandle komhlaba, isixa sesichumisi siyafana nesitya kodwa kude nesiseko umthi, malunga nomda ongaphandle we-canopy), amanzi aneleyo amanzi aqhelekileyo (ngexesha lonyaka elomileyo). Rhoqo ngenyanga, sebenzisa amaxesha angama-2-3, jonga amagqabi omthi, amasebe kunye namagqabi atyebileyo. Ukuba amagqabi amnyama kakhulu, nciphisa umthamo kunye nenani lamaxesha okufaka isicelo. Ngexesha leemvula ukususela ngoJuni ukuya kuOktobha wekhalenda yelanga, sebenzisa i-NPK 13-13-13 TE ukuchumisa, ixesha ngalinye ufaka i-40 – 50g / imbiza equlethe i-50 – 60kg yomhlaba, rhoqo emva kweentsuku eziyi-15-20. Ukuchumisa izichumisi ezingentla kunike uluhlu olupheleleyo lwe-macronutrients kunye ne-micronutrients ye-apricots. Nangona kunjalo, xa utshintsha umhlaba okanye emva kweenyanga ezi-3-4 ukusuka kwixesha lokutshintsha komhlaba, umgquba unokongezwa: inkomo efakwe kakuhle, ihagu, kunye nomgquba wenkukhu odityaniswe ne-rice husk ash nayo ilungile kakhulu ekupheleni kwemvula. ixesha lonyaka: malunga embindini wexesha lemvula.. Ikhalenda kaNovemba. Qhubeka uhlolisisa ubume bomthi, amasebe kunye namagqabi anelisekile. Kuyenzeka ukuba kuthenwe kwakhona emva koko kunkcenkceshelwe kuphela isityalo.

• Isichumiso sokuvuselela iingcambu zemithi yeapilkosi emthubi

Iipricots ezikhulile kwiimbiza: Ngokuxhomekeke kwimiyalelo yomenzi, kuxhomekeke kubukhulu bebhodwe, inani lesichumisi lingahluka kwi-20-50 gr / ibhodwe ixesha eli-1. Ngeembiza ezinkulu, imithi ye-apricot endala inokuchumisa malunga ne-50-80 gr / imbiza. Yenza umsele ujikeleze udonga lwembiza, malunga ne-3-5 cm ubunzulu, usasaze isichumisi ngokulinganayo emseleni, ugubungele ngomhlaba kunye namanzi ngokwaneleyo. Gwema ukusika iingcambu, isityalo siyakwazi ukusuleleka ngenxeba. Ukuba kunokwenzeka, unyaka ngamnye ekuqaleni kwexesha lemvula kufuneka utshintshe umhlaba ebhodweni kunye nomhlaba omtsha ovulekileyo, okanye wongeze isichumisi esibolile, isixa sesichumisi esivela kwi-2-3 kg / imbiza.


* Sebenzisa isichumiso samagqabi: Ukongeza ekusebenziseni izichumisi emhlabeni, izichumisi ezinamahlamvu zinendima ebalulekileyo ekukhuthazeni ukukhula kunye nophuhliso, ukongeza izondlo ezinqongopheleyo emhlabeni, ukuvuselela iingcambu, ukuhluma, kunye neentyatyambo ngokuthanda.

Ezinye iintlobo zezichumiso ezinamahlamvu ezinomdla kubalimi bezitiya zezi: Isichumiso seFoliar iDau Trau 501 sikhuthaza amagqabi kunye namagqabi, iBuffalo Head 701 ikhuthaza umqhaphu, kwaye iBuffalo Head 901 inefuthe lomqhaphu owondlayo ukunceda iintyatyambo zihlale ixesha elide kwaye zibe nemibala emihle. Ngokufanayo neqela lezichumisi zamagqabi i-Dau Trau 005, i-Dau Trau 007, i-Dau Trau 009 nazo zisebenza kakhulu kuzo zonke iintlobo zeeapilkosi zokuhombisa.

Uvimba weDatha (Source): Incwadi yesiKhokelo engokukhuliswa kwemithi yeapilkosi etyheli-uMphathiswa wezoLimo noPhuhliso lwamaPhandle

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