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Igama lesiNgesi/igama leNzululwazi: ICashew

Igama lesiNgesi: ICashew

Igama leNzululwazi: Anacardium occidentale L.

Ifani: I-Mango – i-Anacardiaceous

Umthombo: UMntla-mpuma weBrazil

Umthi weCashew, okwaziwa njengePesika, sisityalo esihlala sihlala sisenza isivuno esikhulu seziqhamo. Umthi ukhuliswa kakhulu kwindawo eziPhakamileyo eziseMbindini nakwimimandla ekuMazantsi-mpuma ukuze ufumane iinkozo zokulungiswa kokutya. Ngezantsi ziimpawu ze-morphological zomthi we-cashew, ngokusekelwe kolu phawu, unokukhetha iindidi ezifanelekileyo ze-cashew kwigadi yakho yasekhaya ukwenzela isivuno esiphezulu.


Iimpawu zeBotanical zomthi we-cashew

Iimpawu zeBotanical zomthi we-cashew

Umthi weCashew ngumthi woshishino oluhlala ixesha elide kunye nobomi beminyaka engama-40-50, umthi unika isivuno esiphezulu esizinzile ukusuka kwiminyaka eyi-10-20 emva kokutyala.

1. Ukusasazwa kwemithi yeecashew

– Umthi weCashew, owaziwa ngokuba ngumthi wePesikaAnacardium occidentale L.) yavela kumntla-mpuma weBrazil, yangeniswa eAsia naseAfrika phakathi kowe-1560-1565 emva kokuba ubukhosi bamathanga baseYurophu bufumene amazwe aseMelika.

– Ngoku, olu hlobo lomthi luye lwaba sisityalo soshishino, esikhule kuzo zonke imozulu yetropikhi eMelika, e-Afrika, e-Asia nase-Australia ukufumana iinkozo ukuba zilungiswe njengokutya.

– EVietnam imithi yeCashew ikhula ngendlela yasendle okanye ikhule kulo lonke ilizwe kwaye imithi ye-cashew yemizi-mveliso ikhule kakhulu kumaphondo asemazantsi asezintabeni ezinjengeDak Lak, Dak Nong kunye neBinh Phuoc…

Ukusukela ngo-2006 ukuya ku-2010, iVietnam yaba lelona lizwe lihamba phambili ngokuthumela iinkozo ze-cashew kumazwe angaphandle, kunye nelizwe lesine elineyona acreage enkulu yecashew ehlabathini emva kweNigeria (1), India (2) ) kunye neCôte d’Ivoire (3) .
















Amazwe ali-10 aphezulu avelisa i-cashew (eneqokobhe) kwihlabathi (2010)


Ilizwe


Imveliso (iitoni)


Isivuno (toni/ha)

Nayijeriya

650,000 iphumelele

1.97

Indiya

613,000

0.66

Khot divwa

380,000 iphumelele

0.44

Viyethnam

289,842

0.85

Indoneshiya

145,082

0.25

Filipayinzi

134.681

4.79

Brazil

104.342

0.14

Gini-Bisawu

91,100

0.38

Thanzaniya

80,000 iphumelele

1.0

Bhenin

69,700

0.29


Ihlabathi


2,757,598


0.58


Umthombo: Umbutho woKutya & nezoLimo (FAO)



2. Iimpawu zezityalo zomthi we-cashew

2.1. Iimpawu zeengcambu zeCashew

– Umthi weCashew ungowohlobo lweengcambu zeengqumba kunye nezithungu ezininzi zeengcambu, iingcambu ezithe tyaba, ezinzulu ngaphantsi komhlaba, ziyachuma xa zikhangela izondlo zokutyisa umthi.

– Xa utyalwe apho umhlaba unemingxuma, emva kweenyanga ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-3 kuphela, iingcambu zomthi wecashew zinokuncothulwa ukuya kutsho kwi-80 cm, emva kweenyanga ezi-5 ukuya kwezi-6 zokutyala, iingcambu zinokungena emhlabeni ukuya kwi-2m.

– Ngokuxhomekeke kuhlobo lomhlaba kunye nokukwazi ukukhula komthi wecashew, ingcambu yecashew tree ingaba ngamashumi eemitha ubunzulu kwaye inokunwenwela kwicanopy evalekileyo ukusuka kwi50 ukuya kwi60 cm, ukuze umthi ube nembalela. iyanyamezela, ilungile kakhulu, inokukhula ngesiqhelo ngexesha lonyaka elomileyo, ngaphandle kwamanzi kangangeenyanga ezi-5 ukuya kwezi-6.

2.2. Iimpawu zezityalo zomthi we-cashew

– Isiqu somthi weCashew yi-6-8m ukuphakama, ukuba uhlala kwindawo ekhule kakuhle umthi unokude ube yi-10m. Isiqu somthi we-cashew sifutshane, kodwa i-canopy yinde kwaye inde.

– Esiqwini kunye namasebe ahlala enelatex eninzi. I-canopy idla ngokubunjwa njenge-ambrella, amasebe ahlala ephuma ngokuthe tye, ngoko xa esemancinci, amasebe ahlala ekhula ehla ezantsi emhlabeni.

– Umthi weCashew ngumthi othanda ukukhanya, ngoko isiqu sinokukhula kakuhle kwiindawo ezinokukhanya okunamandla, xa kukho ukukhanya okwaneleyo, amasebe anokwandisa, ngoko abantu kufuneka banikele ingqalelo kwinqanaba lokuthena ukudala i-canopy kunye nokutyala imithi. kwindawo Uxinaniso olufanelekileyo lokwandisa ukukwazi kwamasebe ukufikelela.

2.3. Iimpawu zezityalo zamagqabi e-cashew

– Amagqabi omthi we cashew ayagxadazela, angqukuva amile okweqanda, anezikhondo ezimfutshane.

– Imithi yeCashew inamagqabi ahlala egxininiswe kwiincam zamasebe, amagqabi ahlala e-10 ukuya kwi-20 cm ubude, i-5 ukuya kwi-10 cn ububanzi, i-petioles imfutshane. Incakuba yegqabi ingqindilili kwaye inemithambo ebonakalayo, ngakumbi umzantsi wemithambo ecacileyo. Xa eselula, amagqabi adla ngokubabomvu okanye aluhlaza, xa ekhulile, amagqabi ajika abe luhlaza mnyama.

– Icanopy yomthi we cashew ikholisa ukuba banzi kakhulu, xa umthi uvuthwa kwaye uvuthwa kwiimeko ezifanelekileyo zokukhula, i-canopy inokufikelela kwi-5m ububanzi ukusuka kwisiseko, ngokuqhelekileyo umthi we-cashew omdala udla ngokuba ne-canopy ehlala kwindawo ukuya kuma-50 ukuya kwi-60 square metres xa umthi ufikelela kwiminyaka emi-6 ukuya kwe-7 ubudala.

2.4. Iimpawu zeentyatyambo zemithi ye-cashew

– Imithi yeCashew idla ngokutyatyamba ekupheleni kwexesha lemvula kwaye ilungiselela ukutshintshela kwixesha elomileyo. Iintyatyambo zeCashew zineentyatyambo ezingafaniyo nesini kunye nezimbini. Iintyatyambo zikhula ngokwamaqela, iqoqo ngalinye lineshumi elinesibini okanye amakhulu eentyatyambo.

– Iintyatyambo zeCashew zityheli okanye zimhlophe zinemigca ebomvu, iintyatyambo zipinki ezintle. Iintyatyambo zeCashew zineepetals ezi-5, kwiintyatyambo zeenkunzi kuphela i-stamens yamadoda kwaye i-hermaphrodites ine-8 ukuya kwi-10 yamadoda kunye ne-pistil e-1 yemazi. Ngokuqhelekileyo, i-stamen enye kuphela yamadoda kwiintyatyambo ze-hermaphroditic esebenza ngokupheleleyo kwaye iyakwazi ukukhulula i-pollen, ezinye i-stamens zihlala zingakwazi ukukhupha i-pollination.


Iimpawu zeentyatyambo zecashew

Iimpawu zeentyatyambo zecashew

– Iintyatyambo zeCashew zihlala zikhula kwiincam zamasebe kwaye ziquka zombini iintyatyambo eziyindoda kunye ne-hermaphrodite. Iintyatyambo zidla ngokuvuzwa kuphela zizinambuzane okanye umoya. Iintyatyambo zihlala ziqhakaza kusasa, kodwa ukuba kunetha ngelixa iintyatyambo ziqhakaza, ii-anthers aziyi kukwazi ukuqhekeka ukuze i-pollen iwele, ngoko ke i-pollination ayiyi kwenzeka, ibangele ukusilela kwezityalo.

– Emva kweminyaka emi-3 yokutyala, umthi omtsha we-cashew uqalisa ukudubula, ixesha lentyatyambo lihlala lihlala malunga neenyanga ezi-3 kwaye lahlulwe ngokwamanqanaba ama-3 ahlukeneyo kuquka:

+ Ixesha apho iintyatyambo zentyatyambo yendoda yokuqala zihlala zihlala kwiintsuku ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-4, ngeli xesha, malunga ne-19 ukuya kwi-100% ziintyatyambo zamadoda.

+ Ixesha apho zombini iihermaphrodites kunye neentyatyambo eziyindoda zidubula kunye zihlala zimalunga neentsuku ezingama-70. Kuzo, ukusuka kwi-0 ukuya kwi-60% iintyatyambo zamadoda, uluhlu oluseleyo ukusuka kwi-0 ukuya kwi-20% yi-hermaphrodites.

+ Ixesha apho intyantyambo yesibini yobuduna ihlala ithatha iintsuku ezili-13 kuphela, malunga ne-0 ukuya kwi-67% yeentyatyambo zamadoda.

– Ngaloo ndlela, umehluko wexesha phakathi kwe-hermaphrodite kunye neentyantyambo zamadoda zidla ngokuba yi-1/6, ngoko ke i-inflorescence idla ngokuba neentyatyambo ezininzi, kodwa izinga le-fruiting limalunga ne-10.2 kuphela.

2.5. Iimpawu zezityalo zomthi we-cashew

– Iziqhamo zeCashew (iziqhamo zobuxoki) zikwabizwa ngokuba yimbewu yepesika kuba isiqhamo secashew sisiqhamo somgunyathi esinesiqu esidumbileyo. Eyona cashew yicashew esiyisebenzisa emva kokwahlula ikernel

– Emva komvumvuzelwano oluyimpumelelo, iziqhamo zecashew (eyi-cashew nut) ziya kukhula ngokomlinganiselo ngokukhawuleza okukhulu. Kwiinyanga ezi-1.5 kunokwenzeka ukuba ufikelele kubukhulu obukhulu. Ukusuka apho, isiqhamo asiqali ukukhula, kodwa sijika sikhuphe isiqu sesiqhamo sibe sisiqhamo sobuxoki. Ngaloo ndlela, isiqhamo se-cashew sineenxalenye ezimbini, inyaniso kunye neyobuxoki.


Iimpawu zeziqhamo zecashew

Iimpawu zeziqhamo zecashew

+ Isiqhamo sobuxoki: Yinxalenye evuthiweyo, etyiwayo. Iziqhamo zobuxoki 10-12 cm ubude, 4-8 cm ububanzi. Le nxalenye sisidi seentyatyambo esikhula sibe. Ifumaneka ngemibala emininzi: ebomvu, emfusa, emthubi…

+ Inene: Lindongomane le-cashew liphela kunye neqokobhe, imbewu yokwenyani yinkozo etyiwayo ngaphakathi. Yeyomileyo, engavulekiyo, iziqhamo ezimile okwezintso, 2-3 cm ubude, 5-9 g ubunzima, ulusu lwangaphandle oluqinileyo, grey, ubuso obungqukuva, isiqu esikhuliswe saba yipere okanye imilo yepesika, ebomvu, emthubi okanye tyheli.mhlophe. Ngoko ke, abantu bahlala becinga ukuba inxalenye ekhulayo yesiqhamo sisiqhamo, ngelixa isiqhamo esiqhotyoshelweyo siyimbewu, ngoko ke igama elithi “ipesika enembewu ngaphandle kwesiqhamo”.

2.6. Iimpawu zezityalo ze-cashew nut

I-cashew nuts, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-cashew kernels, iqulethe ioli enamafutha. Ukufumana i-cashew kernel, abantu kufuneka basuse idyasi yembewu (eli qokobhe lidla ngokuthatha i-70% yobunzima be-kernel kwaye linobunzima obufikelela kwi-3mm), iqokobhe le-nut likwahlulwe libe ngamalungu ama-4 ukugquma ukhozo. Iqokobhe elingaphandle liqinile kakhulu kwaye liqinile, lilandelwa liqokobhe eliphakathi elineentunja ezininzi, iqokobhe eliphakathi lidla ngokuthatha i-30% yobunzima beqokobhe, le yinxalenye ene-oyile yecashew nut.

– Ukufumana i-kernel sifuna eli qokobhe, kodwa liqulethe i-Urushion enetyhefu kakhulu eluswini lomntu. Okokugqibela, iqokobhe elingaphakathi liqine kakhulu, emva koko umaleko ongaphandle wesilika obhityileyo wogqume i-cashew kernel emhlophe.

Iinkozo ze-cashew zineoli eninzi kunye namafutha, zinencasa emnandi, kwaye zityebile ngamafutha, ngoko ke zisetyenziswa kakhulu xa kusenziwa iiconfectionery okanye ukuqhotswa.iicashews ezigcadiweyo ezinetyuwa).

3. Incinci malunga neshishini le-cashew laseVietnam

– UMphathiswa wezoLimo kunye noPhuhliso lwaseMaphandleni uthe i-cashew yenye yezona mveliso eziphambili zezolimo zaseVietnam. Ukusukela ngo-2006 ukuya kowama-2010, iVietnam yaba lelona lizwe lihamba phambili ngokuthumela i-cashew kumazwe angaphandle.

– Imithi yeCashew ilinywa ikakhulu kwiindawo ezihlelelekileyo, nto leyo ethe yanegalelo elihle ekuphuculeni ubomi babalimi basemaphandleni. Imithi ye-cashew nayo ixabisekile njengezityalo zemizi-mveliso, uhlaza umhlaba obharhileyo, nokukhusela okusingqongileyo.

– Ishishini le-cashew laseVietnam ngo-2011 liphumeze imbuyekezo yokuthumela ngaphandle phantse kwi-1.4 yeebhiliyoni ze-USD kwaye libekwe kwindawo yesi-3 kwihlabathi ekuthengiseni kumazwe angaphandle i-cashew ekrwada, inegalelo elisemthethweni kushishino olongezelelwe ixabiso eliphezulu kweli lizwe.

– Kwi-International Cashew Customer Conference 2012, ehlelwe yi-Vietnam Cashew Association, yavulwa ngoMeyi 22, 2012 kwisixeko saseNha Trang (Khanh Hoa). UMnu. Do Van Nam, uMlawuli weSebe lokuLungiswa, uRhwebo lwe-Agro-Forestry-Fisheries kunye neShishini leTyuwa (uMphathiswa wezoLimo noPhuhliso lwamaPhandle) uthe:

– Ngo-2011, ilizwe lonke libe neehektare ezingaphezu kwama-362,000 ze-cashew, imveliso yayingaphezu kweetoni ezingama-300,000, isivuno sasiphantse sibe yi-1 ton/ha, siphindwe kabini xa kuthelekiswa no-1999; Ingeniso yokuthumela ngaphandle i-cashew kernel iphantse i-1.4 bhiliyoni ye-USD, iphindwe kabini xa kuthelekiswa no-2007.

Ngokwesicwangciso sika Rhulumente soshishino lwe cashew ukuya ku 2020, indawo yokulima i cashew izakufikelela malunga ne 400,000 yeehektare, indawo evuniweyo iya kufikelela kwi 350,000 yeehektare, isivuno siya kuba yi 2 tons/hektare, kwaye imveliso ekrwada iya kuba malunga ne 700,000 yeetoni. Nangona kunjalo, i-acreage ye-cashew ekhoyo ngoku kwilizwe lonke yehle ngeehektare ezingaphezulu kwama-77,000 xa kuthelekiswa no-2007. Ngoko ke, owona mngeni mkhulu kushishino lwe-cashew kukudala umthombo osebenzayo wemathiriyeli ekrwada.. 50% yomthamo wokusetyenzwa kweefektri.

Ngokovavanyo lwe-FAO (2010), isivuno se-cashew eVietnam sisephantsi kakhulu, sifikelela kuphela kwiitoni ze-0.8 zamantongomane ngehektare nganye, ngelixa iNigeria (iAfrika) ifikelele kwi-1.97 yeetoni / ngehektare kunye nentshatsheli kwimveliso yiPhilippines. , efikelele kwi-4.79 tons/ha.

Umthombo: FAOSTAT 2011

Umthombo: UMlawuli Jikelele – LP

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