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Itshilisi yipepile eshushu kakhulu. Ngokubanzi, kuzo zonke iipepile ezishushu, ukukhulisa ipepile yetshili yeyona nto ilula, ayikhethi umhlaba, inokuba indlela yokukhulisa i-chili pepper kumhlaba othe tyaba, kumhlaba osezintabeni okanye kumhlaba osithabazi.

Kodwa kungcono ukukhulisa itshilisi kwindawo evulekileyo, kuba unyaka nonyaka kukho isixa se-alluvium accretion okanye ukutyala emhlabeni kwintsimi ngokuchuma okulungileyo, ukukhupha amanzi kunye nokukhanya kwelanga.

Ukuza kwinqaku lanamhlanje, uFoo uya kukwabelana nawe malunga indlela yokukhulisa i-chili pepper kunye nobuchule bokukhulisa iipepile kwisivuno esikhulu kuphela!

Iindidi kunye nexesha lokukhula kwe-chili pepper

1, Kanye njengetshilisi yendalo

Iindidi zepepile ezishushu ezivela ikakhulu emarikeni namhlanje zezi: iipepile eziphuma kwi-East West Seed Company okanye kuphela ezingama-25… Redchilli, idilesi Hotchilli, Hybrid No. 20 of Southern Seed Company. Lemihlanganisela xa ivunwa inika izivuno eziphezulu kwaye iyakwazi ukumelana nezinambuzane nezifo.

Kanye njengepelepele

I-2, Ixesha lokukhula kwe-chili pepper lingokwemvelo

Abantu bahlala belima ipepile yetshili ikakhulu kula maxesha ama-2 alandelayo:

  • Isivuno sasekwindla-ebusikaImbewu ityalwa phakathi ku-Agasti, emva koko ityalwe ekupheleni kukaSeptemba, kwaye ivunwe ukusuka ngoNovemba ukuya phakathi kuFebruwari kunyaka ozayo.
  • Isityalo sasentwasahloboImbewu ityalwa phakathi ku January, ze ityalwe ekupheleni kuka February, kwaye ingavunwa ngo April ukuya ekuqaleni kuka July.

Indlela yokukhulisa itshilisi kuphela izithole

Ukuze ukwazi ukuyenza ngokufanelekileyo Indlela yokukhulisa itshilisi yinto yendalo kuphela Nceda ulandele la manyathelo ama-3 angezantsi.

1, Ukwenza umhlaba wokutyala iipepile

a, Khetha umhlaba we nursery

  • Khetha imihlaba eneempawu ezilandelayo ukuze indlela yokukhulisa i-chili pepper kuba uthandeka kakhulu. I-humus eninzi, i-porous, ikhutshwe kakuhle, ingenayo i-acidic kwaye ikwazi ukunika amanzi kwizithole xa ifuneka, umhlaba uhlakulwe ngononophelo, awuqulathanga izinambuzane kunye nezifo kwizityalo.
  • Phezulu ebhedini: Ibhedi inobubanzi obuyi 80 ukuya kwi 100cm, ubude obuyi 20 ukuya kwi 30cm, ifakwe umgquba obolileyo okanye isichumiso se microbiological (qaphela akufuneki ufakwe urea) phambi kokutyala amanzi ukugcina umhlaba ufumile.

Ukwenza umhlaba wokulima itshilisi yinto yendalo kuphela

b, Umhlaba wokugalela

Ngomhlaba osetyenziselwa ukwenza iimbiza emsebenzini kukhula itshilisi ezulwini Emva koko kufuneka ukhethe umhlaba wegadi, intsimi, umhlaba olungileyo, i-porous, i-acidic, uze uwuzise ukuba wome, ugaye, uze udibanise nomgquba obolileyo kumlinganiselo we-1: 2 (okt 1 umgquba 2 umhlaba).

Iqokobhe linokwenziwa ngeendlela ezimbini:

  • Ukuba usebenzisa ingxowa yeplastiki ukwenza iqokobhe kwaye ibe nobubanzi obuyi-3 ukuya kwi-4cm, ubude obuyi-4cm, yinqumle ikona kwaye usebenzise into ebukhali etsolo ukugqobhoza icala lengxowa ukunceda ukukhupha amanzi.
  • Ukuba wenza iqokobhe lokubumba ngamagqabi ebhanana, qhubeka ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: faka umhlaba kwi-1/3 yembiza, emva koko sebenzisa izandla zakho ukuyidibanisa ukwenza isiseko kwaye uqhubeke ukongeza umhlaba oxubeneyo ukuzalisa imbiza.

Ingqalelo: Akufunekanga ugalele iurea nitrogen xa ugalela.

2, Gxumisa imbewu yepelepele

Ukuze ukwazi ukungena eqongeni kukhula itshilisi ezulwini emva koko kufuneka udlule kwinqanaba lokufukamela imbewu. Ngaphambi kokuba uqalise ukucwina imbewu, kufuneka ubeke imbewu ekukhanyeni kwelanga malunga ne-1 ukuya kwiiyure ze-2.

Ukunyanga imbewu, usebenzisa i-Kasuran ichiza elinyibilikisiweyo nge-5 ukuya kwi-7g / ilitha yamanzi, emva koko ucwilise imbewu ngeyure eli-1, emva koko uzikhuphe kwaye uzihlambe ngamanzi afudumele kumlinganiselo 3 ukubilisa 2 kubanda (ubushushu bumalunga nama-45 ukuya kuma-50. oC).

Kufuneka uchole imbewu ebolileyo, enqunyanyisiweyo kwaye uqhubeke ufunxa emanzini acocekileyo Musa ukusebenzisa amanzi omthombo (kungcono ukuba amanzi emvula) malunga neeyure ezisi-8 ukunceda imbewu ukuba ifunxe amanzi.

Vumela imbewu ikhuphe kwaye emva koko uyibeke kwisiqwenga selaphu lomqhaphu elifumileyo, hlala ushushu, de imbewu iqhekeke, isasaze okanye isasaze ngepleyiti yesanti emanzi kwaye usebenzise iphepha lesikhumba ukulibeka esantini, imbewu ifakwe emanzini. emanzini, ngokulinganayo kwipleyiti, sebenzisa ipleyiti efumileyo ukogquma imbewu.

Qwalasela rhoqo kwaye ujonge ukuba yomile na, uze wongeze amanzi amaninzi de imbewu iqhekeke kwaye ihlwayele.

3, Ubuchwephesha bokuhlwayela imbewu yetshilisi bungokwemvelo

Ubuchule bokuhlwayela lelona nqanaba libalulekileyo kwi Indlela yokukhulisa itshilisi yinto yendalo kuphelakuchaphazela ukukhula kunye nophuhliso lwesityalo, nceda ube nobuchule kweli nyathelo ukuya kukhula itshilisi ezulwini hamba kakuhle.

  • Ukulungiselela: Umhlaba ubhuliwe, emva kokuba imbewu yenziwe, ufefe i-vibasa (usasaze ngaphambi kokuhlwayela) okanye ungasebenzisa i-anticide ye-Institute of Agricultural Genetics, iyakwazi ukumelana nezinambuzane, isakhelo se-bamboo, inayiloni, i-straw (qaphela, wena akufuneki athathe iindiza okanye iindiza kwiindawo ezinentsholongwane)
  • Ukuhlwayela imbewu: Phambi kokuba uhlwayele imbewu, kufuneka ulungise intsimi ukuze igqitywe, ucwilise imbewu eqhekekileyo emva koko uze nembewu ukuze uyihlwayele okanye ukhuphe imbewu, sebenzisa umhlaba omncinane oxutywe neyeza lembovane ukugquma imbewu, sebenzisa iindiza okanye iindiza ukugquma. Ixesha elisanda kulinywa ukugcina imbewu ifumile, i-bamboo arches inamandla okuthintela ukukhanya kwelanga kunye nemvula kwizityalo, ngoko ke kufuneka ufakele i-arch frames ukugquma izithole xa kunelanga kakhulu okanye imvula enkulu, emva kokuhlwayela imbewu. imbewu kufuneka yenziwe.Fakela idome kwangoko.

Imbewu yokulima iipepile kuphela

Phawula: ukuvota kwindawo enelanga, hayi kwindawo egqunywe ngamapolisa.

Iindlela zokunyamekela izithole

Emva kokuhlwayela imbewu, kufuneka uhlale uqwalasela, uqinisekise ukuba izityalo zinokufuma okwaneleyo, xa imbewu ihluma ngokulinganayo, susa zonke iindiza (ungavumeli isityalo sihlume ngomququ, kuya kuchaphazela kakubi izithole) kwaye usebenzise iyeza. I-Validamycin yaseJapan itshizwe ukunqanda ukubola kweengcambu zezithole kanye ngeentsuku ezisi-7.

Umthi ukhula de ube namagqabi ama-3 ukuya kwa-4, emva koko usebenzise i-Anvil 5SC ukutshiza ukuthintela isifo seengcambu. Emva kokuba umthi ukhulile kwaye udibana nemvula enkulu okanye ilanga elinzima, kufuneka ugqume ngeplastiki ukukhusela umthi.

Ngeli xesha, umthi kufuneka ube nokufuma okwaneleyo ukuqinisekisa ukukhula kwesityalo, xa izithole zinamaqabunga angama-3 ukuya kwe-4 okwenyaniso, nciphisa isichumiso se-urea kwaye uvuselele izityalo ngokulinganayo. De izithole zibe neentsuku ezingama-25 ukuya kwezingama-30 ubudala, qhubekaIdragoni Itshilisi yasezulwini (xa umthi ufikelela kubude obuyi-10 ukuya kwi-15 cm, kungcono ukuwutyala)

Kuya kufuneka ujonge kwaye ubeke iliso rhoqo izinto ezinobungozi kwizityalo ezikwi-nursery ezifana:

  • I-slug iluma isithombo, Iimbovane zikhulula imbewu kwaye zithathe amanyathelo afanelekileyo ukuze zizitshabalalise ngeVibasu, Vibasa, kunye ne-Basudin 10H yeziyobisi.
  • Isifo se-Root-neck, esi sisifo esixhaphakileyo esenza umonakalo omkhulu kwizityalo kumaqondo obushushu angama-28 ukuya kwi-30 oC kunye nokufuma okuphezulu (imozulu yamafu), ukuba imeko yemozulu ifunyenwe, kuyimfuneko ukutshiza ukukhusela izifo ngokukhawuleza nge-Anvil 5SC okanye I-Validacin (ekhethwayo ukuba itshizwe ngamaxesha athile emva kweentsuku ezi-5 ukuya kwezi-7).

Phawula: Ngaphambili isityalo Itshilisi yasezulwini Entsimini, kuyacetyiswa ukuba usebenzise iyeza le-Actara 25WG ukutshiza ngaphandle kwamachiza okutofa ukuthintela isifo sentsholongwane kwiintsuku ezi-1 ukuya kwezi-2 ngaphambili.

Ubuchule bokukhulisa itshilisi buyinto yendalo kuphela entsimini

Ngamanyathelo ama-3 alula angezantsi, ungawugqiba Indlela yokukhulisa itshilisi yinto yendalo kuphela uze ube nomonde kude kube sekupheleni.

1, Ukwenza umhlaba wokutyala iipepile

Ububanzi obufanelekileyo bebhedi bu malunga ne-90 ukuya kwi-100 cm (umqolo ophindwe kabini), i-groove yi-35 ukuya kwi-40 cm. Ukuxinana isityalo Itshilisi yasezulwini Kukwaxhomekeke kuluhlu, kodwa uninzi lutyalwe ngoxinaniso lulandelayo:

  • Iindidi zinokuthi zifakwe ngamandla kwaye zityalwe: umthi x umthi 40 ukuya kwi-45 cm; umqolo x umqolo yi-60 cm.
  • Ipali nganye ikhula malunga ne-900 ukuya kwi-1000 imithi (kuxhomekeke kwixesha lonyaka, kunye nommandla we-360 m2).

2, Ukwenza izihlangu

Kufuneka uyile i-truss kukhula itshilisi ezulwini entsha kwisivuno esikhulu, kunye nokunceda itshilisi iipepile zikhule ngokukhawuleza. Ukuqhuba iimfumba ze-bamboo ezinobude obungama-50 ukuya kuma-70 kumgca osembindini, umgama phakathi kweemfumba yi-3m.

Emva koko sebenzisa ucingo okanye ucingo lomnqwazi ukutsala kwimiqolo emi-2 ecaleni komgca osembindini, ikakhulu ukuthintela ukuba umthi ungawi xa kune imvula eninzi nomoya onamandla okanye ezinye izinto zangaphandle ziwuchaphazela.

3, Isichumisi / ipali yepepile

Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lomhlaba, chumisa ngedosi efanelekileyo, kodwa umndilili umi ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Umgquba ovundisiweyo: 5 ukuya kwi-6 yeequintals.
  • Lan Super: malunga 20 kg.
  • Isichumisi seUrea: 12 ukuya kwi-15 kg.
  • Potassium: 10 ukuya 12 kg.

Ukhula njani ipepile

Phawula: Imfuno ye potassium efunwa zizityalo zetshilisi iyimfuneko, ngakumbi iipepile ezishushu. Emva kokuchumisa amaxesha ama-2, isixa esishiyekileyo sesichumisi sihlanjululwa kwaye sinkcenkceshelwe emva kokuvuna isiqhamo ngasinye.

Ukunyamekela emva kokutyala i-pepper yendalo

Xa izithole zifika ziqhakaza, kuyimfuneko ukugcina umswakama rhoqo ngokunkcenkceshela imingxuma okanye imisele yokunkcenkceshela. Xa umthi ukwinqanaba le-branching, susa amasebe kufuphi nesiseko, ushiye kuphela amasebe ukusuka kwindawo yefoloko ye-3 okanye ngaphezulu (injongo kukunceda umthi uphefumle, ukunciphisa izinambuzane kunye nokuqokelela izondlo zondla amasebe amakhulu). .

Tyala iipali ze-bamboo ukuxhasa imithi xa ujongene nemimoya ebhudla ngamandla, plaga imiqolo emibini kumqolo ngamnye ngoxinano lwama-70 ukuya kwi-80cm, plagi intonga (qaphela: ncamathela iipali zoqalo kumqolo ngamnye ziyagxadazela) emva koko sebenzisa intambo yenayiloni bopha izibonda kunye xhasa umthi.

Xa umthi uvelisa iziqhamo, ukusuka kweli nqanaba, kufuneka kuphela ukunkcenkceshela imisele (qaphela ukuba xa unkcenkceshela, kuphela amanzi 1/2 yokuphakama kwebhedi xa amanzi efakwe kwi-1/3 yebhedi. Ungasebenzisa Idipha yokunkcenkceshela.umthi kwaye emva koko kufuneka ukhuphe amanzi ngoko nangoko ukuze ungavumeli umsele ube namanzi, kuba umthi usengozini enkulu yosulelo ngesifo somyolelo oluhlaza….

Uthintelo lwezinye izitshabalalisi ezinkulu kunye nezifo xa ukhulisa ipepile

1, Izitshabalalisi zepepile

Ngelo xesha kukhula itshilisi ezulwini ke mhlawumbi uya kudibana nezinambuzane ezininzi ezihlasela umthi, phantsi komthi kukho izinambuzane ezimbalwa ezonakalisa umthi kunye nendlela yokuzitshabalalisa, kuya kukunceda kakhulu.

  • Iimopane eziluhlaza zitya amagqabi usebenzisa iSocopi (herb), Cypermethrin, Soka, Peran……
  • Isigcawu esibomvu sibangela ii-curls, amagqabi sebenzisa i-Supracide 40EC, i-Comite, i-Kenthan, i-Tribon, i-Alphatin okanye i-Pegasus SC … ukutshiza ukubulala izinambuzane.
  • Umbungu ongwevu, umbungu otya amagqabixa izithole zithathwa kwintsimi, sebenzisa i-Decis 2.5 EC, iPeran 50 EC … fafaza nge-concentration ngokwemiyalelo eprintiweyo kwi-package yemveliso.
  • Iibhorensi zeziqhamo Sebenzisa iPeran 50EC, Cyperan, Regent 800WG, Socopi (herb), Soka, fafaza kwinqanaba leziqhamo ezincinci.
  • Iintwala ezithambileyo, iithrips eziyingozi Sebenzisa iActara 25WG, fafaza ngemiyalelo yoxinaniso kwipakethe yemveliso.

2, Ukugula

Ukongeza kwizinambuzane kunye nezifo ezichaphazela izityalo, izifo zikwayingxaki ebangela iintloko kubalimi ekuhambeni kwexesha. kukhula itshilisi ezulwini.

a, Isifo sokunyangwa yintsholongwane

Ukubonakaliswa kwesi sifo kukuba isityalo siseluhlaza kwaye siqhelekile, ngokukhawuleza emva kwemini, umthi uyabuna kodwa ngentsasa elandelayo uphinde ube mtsha kwakhona, uphinda ngolu hlobo malunga neentsuku ezi-2 ukuya kwe-3, uya kufa ngokupheleleyo, xa Kwakungekho zimpawu zesifo kwisikhondo.

Okwangoku, akukho chiza likhethekileyo lokunyanga, ikakhulu kusetyenziswa iindlela zokulima, ukuchumisa okulinganayo, kunye nokusetyenziswa kwamanyathelo okujikeleziswa kwezityalo nezinye izityalo.

Xa ufumanisa izityalo ezosulelekileyo, kufuneka uqokelele izityalo ezigulayo kwaye uzitshise kwaye ubeke umgubo wekalika kwimingxunya yemithi egulayo, sebenzisa iziyobisi Kasuran, Starner, Kasumin (Ungasebenzisa i-Steptomicin yeehagu ezifafazwe ngomlinganiselo webhotile e-1). ) ukuthintela izifo.

b, Ukubola kweengcambu nokufa kwezithole

Sebenzisa i-Anvil 5SC okanye i-Validamycin ukutshiza ngaphandle (xa ubona ukukhanya kwelanga okanye imvula okanye imozulu enenkungu etshintshanayo, ukufuma okuphezulu, unokutshiza igumbi ngokukhawuleza okanye unokutshiza rhoqo ngeentsuku ezi-5 ukuya kwezi-7 kwizithole zasenkulisa) .

c, Amagqabi atyheli, umbethe wasekuseni, amachokoza amagqabi

Ukujongana nesi sifo kufuneka usebenzise i-Cuproxat 345SC; Igolide, iRhidomin MZ, iAntracol… isitshizi.

d, Isililo

Amachiza asetyenziswa kakhulu ngabantu ukulwa nesi sifo yiCuproxat 345SC; I-Daconil75WP; Amanqaku 250ND; I-Benlate 50WP (olona hlobo lungcono kukusebenzisa i-Rhidomin MZ, Gold + Score 250EC) etshizwe ngexesha lokufuma kunye nobushushu obuphezulu, elixesha apho imithi ilungiselela ukuvunwa (iziqhamo zokonga).

Izinambuzane kunye nezifo ze-chili pepper

e, Ukubola kweziqhamo, ukuthotywa kweziqhamo

Esi sesona sifo sixhaphakileyo kwipepile. Ukubola kweziqhamo kunye nokuwa kweziqhamo kuneempawu ezifana ne-anthracnose kodwa hayi i-anthracnose, sebenzisa i-CaCl2 ukutshiza ukunqanda ukuwa kweziqhamo, okanye iipellet zeCabo kodwa ukusebenza akubanga phezulu.

Kungcono ukongeza i-calcium ekuqaleni kunye nokuchumisa ngendlela elinganayo, kwiimarike namhlanje kukho i-calcium nitrogen yokunkcenkceshela izityalo xa izityalo ziqala ukuqhakaza.

Ngoko siye safunda malunga indlela yokukhulisa i-chili pepper ngokunjalo nezo Indlela yokukhulisa itshilisi yinto yendalo kuphela sele. Ngeli nqaku, i-Fao inethemba lokuba ungazikhulisa izityalo zakho zetshilisi ezinika kuphela isivuno esiphezulu kunye nomgangatho olungileyo. Umnqweno omhle.

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