Cách trồng Nấm Linh Chi Đỏ tại nhà giúp năng suất tăng cao | Hatgiongtihon.net

Kuba ukukhula amakhowa e-reishi abomvu Ukufezekisa imveliso ephezulu, abalimi kufuneka bafunde kwaye bafunde ubuchule kunye namava kubantu abaninzi, kuba umlimi ngamnye we-mushroom uneendlela ezahlukeneyo zokulima kunye nobuchule ngokuxhomekeke kulwazi lwabo kunye namava exesha elide kwi-professional.

Ukutyala iGanoderma lucidum

Umyezo weGanoderma lucidum

Inyani Inkqubo yokukhulisa iGanoderma lucidum Ngokubanzi, akukho lula kwaye akukho nzima kakhulu, kuye kwakho abalimi abaninzi abaphumeleleyo kwaye baba ngamawaka ezigidi, kodwa kukho ukusilela okukhulu ngenxa yokunqongophala kolwazi lobugcisa ekulimeni.

Abo bangaphumeleliyo kaninzi abanawo amava okanye abazakhelanga inkcubeko yabo ngokwenkqubo, uninzi lwabo kufuneka luxhomekeke ngokupheleleyo kubanikezeli be-embryo.

Oko kudala umngcipheko ngenxa yeembumba ezikumgangatho ophantsi, imeko-bume eyosulelekileyo ichaphazela kakhulu ukukhula komngundo, okubangela ukuncipha kwesivuno.

Ngolwazi oluthile lobugcisa kunye namava e-Tien Thao reishi mushroom ifama, singathanda ukwabelana nawe ngayo imodeli yokukhulisa iGanoderma ebomvu ukufikelela kwimveliso ephezulu.

Ungayikhulisa njani iGanoderma ekhaya

I-1, ixesha lokulinywa kweGanoderma lucidum

Ixesha lokutya khulisa amakhowa ereishi Uphuhliso oluhle kukuqala ukutshintshwa kunye nokulima ukusuka ngoJanuwari ukuya ku-Oktobha, kuba emva kuka-Oktobha, kukho imvula eninzi, ukufuma okuphezulu kunokubangela ukuba i-fungus isuleleke kwaye ikhule ngokungalingani, abalimi abaninzi bahlala beyeka ukutyala.Ngeli xesha de kube semva kweTet.

Kwabo banamava kunye Ubuchwephesha bokukhulisa amakhowa ereishi abomvu Ukuba isivuno siphezulu, kusenokwenzeka ukulima ukusuka ngo-Okthobha ukuya phambili.

UCanzibe khulisa amakhowa ereishi chitha ukusuka kwizityalo ezi-3 ukuya kwezi-4 ngonyaka ngokuxhomekeke kuhlobo lweentlobo ezinexesha lokulinywa kweenyanga ezi-3 ukuya kwezi-4. Kukho iintlobo zokulima ukuya kuthi ga kwiinyanga ezi-6, kodwa uninzi lwazo zikwilizwe lethu namhlanje ukukhula amakhowa e-reishi abomvu Iinyanga ezi-3 ukuya kwezi-4 ukusuka kumhla wokuhlwayela.

I-2, izixhobo eziluhlaza zokukhulisa iGanoderma ebomvu

Ukukhula ama-mushroom e-reishi ebomvu Eyona mathiriyeli ikrwada yinkuni ethambileyo engenazo i-oyile eziyityhefu eziyimfuneko ezifana ne-bagasse, i-sawdust yomthi werabha, umthi we-jackfruit okanye izityalo zamayeza anemifuno. Kwilizwe lethu, abantu basebenzisa ubukhulu becala izinto ezikrwada ezininzi nezingathintelwanga ezifana nerubber sawdust, bagasse.

Ukongezelela, kuyimfuneko yokongeza izongezo ezininzi kunye nezondlo ezininzi, i-micro-minerals yendalo efana ne-cornstarch, i-bran meal, i-MgSO4, i-CaCO3, i-lime kunye namanzi acocekileyo (amanzi asekhaya).

Ukuxuba imathiriyeli ekrwada ngokulinganayo ukulungiselela ukufunxa kwesarha, ukuvundisa kwesarha yokuvundisa okuphuma exothermic ukubola ifayibha kunye nokunceda ukukhupha i-oyile ezibalulekileyo kwi-sawdust ukuze kube lula ukufunxwa kwamanzi.

Kucetyiswa ukuba ususe ukungcola kwi-sawdust ukuze ufunxe amanzi ngokulula kwaye ugweme ukukrazula isikhwama. Jonga ukufuma kwe-sawdust, ngokutsho kwamava, izinto eziluhlaza ziswele amanzi ziya kuba ngcono, kuba amanzi angaphezulu aya kubangela ukufa kwe-anaerobic ye-mycelium.

Fudumeza iimbumba zamakhowa ngokukhawuleza kwiiyure ezi-6 okanye ngaphezulu, hayi ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-30.

Ubuchwephesha bokukhulisa amakhowa ereishi abomvu

Injongo ye-bagging kukuncedisa i-silk material ukuba yaphulwe, yosulelwe yindalo kwaye xa ihamba

3, Ukupakisha amakhowa akhula

Kudingeka ukuba kuqiniswe kakhulu xa uvala isikhwama, kungekhona ngokukhululekile, ukwenzela ukuba isikhwama sinobunzima ukusuka kwi-1.2kg ukuya kwi-1.5kg, inani lama-embryos ama-mushroom kufuneka lanele, lingabi kakhulu okanye lincinci. Injongo yokufaka ibhegi kukuthintela isilika ekuqhawukeni kwaye yosulelwe yimekobume kunye nokuhamba.

Ukusebenzisa intonga ye-mushroom ukwenza umngxuma ofanelekileyo xa ukutshintshwa kuya kunceda i-mycelium ukuphepha ukungqubana.

Sebenzisa ingxowa yeplastiki yobukhulu be-19-20 ukuvala i-sawdust, emva koko uqhubeke ukwenza intamo, sebenzisa iqhosha leplastiki ukwenza intamo, emva koko ufake ibhola yomqhaphu emlonyeni wengxowa ukuyithintela ukuba ifakwe, emva koko uyifake. iyakutshiselwa kwaye ifakwe inzalo.

4, Indlela yePasteurization

Ubuchwephesha be-autoclaving bubaluleke kakhulu ukubulala zonke ii-microorganisms ezikhoyo kwizinto eziphathekayo. Sebenzisa indlela yokuhlamba umphunga kwi-100 degrees C kwiiyure eziyi-12. Ngethuba lenkqubo ye-autoclave, i-autoclave kufuneka ibe ne-steam eyaneleyo kwaye ifikelele kwiqondo lokushisa elifunekayo.

Ukongeza, i-Autoclave pressure cooker ingasetyenziselwa ukuvala inzala ngokukhawuleza kwi-90 – 120 imizuzu, kwiqondo lokushisa lika-119-126 degrees Celsius (uxinzelelo lufikelela kwi-1.2 – 1.5 kwi).

Xa ukufutha kugqityiwe, kuyimfuneko ukunciphisa iqondo lobushushu ukuya kuma 50 degrees celcius uze ususe isingxobo sembewu eziko ukunqanda ubushushu obuphezulu obunokubangela lula ukuba ingxowa ivuthe.

Inkqubo yokukhulisa iGanoderma lucidum

Ikhabhinethi yokucoca, i-autoclave kufuneka ibe nomphunga owaneleyo ukufikelela kubushushu obufunekayo

5, Ukukhethwa kwezithole

Kuba Ukulinywa kwe-mushroom ebomvu ye-reishi Ukufezekisa isivuno esiphezulu, isinyathelo esibaluleke kakhulu kukuhlukanisa iindidi rhoqo, kuba ukuba akwenziwanga kakuhle, i-fungus iya kuthotywa, ichaphazeleke kwizifo, kwaye iyancipha kwisivuno.

Ukulungiselela: I-Sterrilize yonke into ukusuka kwizixhobo zokugoba ukuya kwigumbi lokuxilisa, igumbi kufuneka likhuselwe emoyeni, akufuneki ukuba liqine kakhulu, isikhwama se-embryo kufuneka sifakwe ngokukhawuleza emva kokuba i-autoclaving ipholile.

Izixhobo zokufakela: Iziqhoboshi, itafile yokutofa, utywala obubulala amagciwane, isibane sotywala kunye neebhotile zembewu kufuneka zonke zicocwe kwaye zipholile.

Ingqalelo kufuneka ihlawulwe xa kutyalwa ngokutsha imbewu;

  • Iindidi ezitshintshiweyo kufuneka zibe zeminyaka efanelekileyo, xa utshintshela, ungafaki isibane sotywala emlilweni ixesha elide ukutshisa.
  • Ngethuba lokuxilisa, ibhotile ye-inoculation kufuneka ihlale igcinwe i-horizontal, kungcono ukusebenzisa i-incubator eya kunciphisa i-pathogens evela emoyeni, xa uthetha kunye nokuphefumula.

Ukuzala kunokwenziwa ngezi ndlela zilandelayo:

Indlela yoku-1: Ukutshintshela imbewu ye-reishi kwiintonga zokhuni, kufuneka udale umngxuma kwi-embryo bag kunye nobubanzi obuyi-1.8-2cm, 15-17cm ubunzulu, xa utshintshela, kufuneka ubeke isikhwama sezinto kufuphi nesibane sotywala, emva koko uthabathe nganye. uncamathele engxoweni yembewu ukuya kwingxowa yempahla ekrwada.

Indlela yesi-2: Ukutshintshela imbewu ye-reishi kwimbewu, usebenzisa intonga ukusabalalisa imbewu ngokulinganayo phezu kwesikhwama sezinto eziphathekayo ukuze ugweme ukutyumza imbewu, ubeke malunga ne-10-15g yembewu kwisikhwama sezithako, ngokulingana nengxowa nganye ye-meow. Iingxowa ezingama-40-50 zemathiriyeli zinokutshintshwa.

Emva kokutshintshwa, gubungela ikotoni kwaye uyithuthe kwindawo yokufakelwa kwe-mushroom, hlala uhlambulula igumbi le-incubator.

Ukukhula kweGanoderma ekhaya

Ukukhulisa amakhowa ereishi abomvu ngendlela yokugquma

6, iSilk incubation stage

Kuyimfuneko ukuba indlu yokufukamela kufuneka ihlambuluke kwaye ifakwe umoya ukuze inike i-oxygen eyaneleyo yefungus, ukunciphisa ukushisa, ukunciphisa ukufudumala kunye nokuphepha ukukhula kwesikhunta.

Ukufuma kwendlu yokufukamela malunga ne 75% – 85%, iqondo lobushushu lisuka ku 20 ukuya ku 30 degrees celcius.Kuphephe ukukhanya okuthe ngqo kwelanga, lungisa ukukhanya kube sezantsi kodwa kungabi mnyama kakhulu.

Indlu yokufakelwa kwembewu ayifanele ivuthwe yimvula, musa ukwabelana ngamakhowa omileyo okanye i-embryos ekhulayo yama-mushroom, ngoko ke kufuneka kugcinwe indlu yokufukamela eyahlukileyo. I-incubator kufuneka icocwe, itshizwe nge-insecticide kwaye ifefe ngekalika.

Beka iimbumba ze-mushroom kwi-shelf okanye kwi-shelf yokuxhoma, musa ukunkcenkceshela ixesha lokufukamela, ugweme ukuhamba, ukhangele rhoqo ukuba i-fungus i-moldy okanye intsholongwane, yisuse kwi-incubator.

Ukubeka iliso kwinkqubo yokusasaza i-mycelium kwi-mycelium 1/2 ukuya kwi-1/3 kuxa i-mycelium iqala ukwenza imizimba yeziqhamo, isuse umaleko omncinane womqhaphu entanyeni yengxowa yembewu ukuze umngundo ube nendawo yokukhula ngaphandle kokuxinga. .

Emva koko fukamela de i-mycelium yogqunywe ngengxowa emva kweentsuku ezi-2, emva koko amanzi ukugcina ubushushu obungama-28 degrees celcius, ukufuma okungama-90%.

Ngokwamava, ixesha lokufukamela i-embryos lifutshane, kodwa i-silk emhlophe ikhula ngokukhawuleza, kaninzi ayiphumeleli isivuno esikhulu.

I-7, Inqanaba lokunyamekela kunye nokuqokelela

Ukulungiselela indlu yokukhulisa iGanoderma lucidum kufuneka ihlangabezane nale miqathango ilandelayo:

Abalimi bamakhowa kufuneka bacoceke, bakhanyise kakuhle, bangene umoya, kwaye basasazeke ngokulinganayo macala onke ukunceda amakhowa akhule ngokulinganayo.

Indlu ekhulisa amakhowa kufuneka ivalwe, uphahla aluyivumeli imvula, idrafti-proof kodwa ayifuthaniselwa, igqunywe ngomnatha ukunqanda ilanga lijikeleza, indlu kufuneka iqiniseke ukuba iyasebenza kuyo yonke imozulu, mayigcine ukufuma kodwa kufuneka Ukuphefumla kwamakhowa.Kulumkele ukosuleleka.

Ngalo lonke ixesha qinisekisa ukuba ubushushu bokukhula kakuhle kwamakhowa busuka kuma-22 ukuya kuma-28 degrees celcius, kwaye ukufuma komoya kuphakathi.

Nkcenkceshela umthombo wamanzi acocekileyo, ucoce ujikeleze indawo yokukhula kwamakhowa ukuze ugcine umngundo ungasuleleki.

Inkqubo yokunyamekela nokuvuna idla ngokusetyenziswa ngeendlela ezimbini:

Indlela yokugquma umhlaba:

Qaphela ukuba i-mycelium ikhula malunga ne-3/4 yesikhwama, susa i-cotton layer, vula umphezulu wesikhwama, uze ugubungele umphezulu womhlaba omncinci malunga ne-3cm.

Emva kokugquma umhlaba, i-mushroom ebomvu ye-reishi idinga ukunakekelwa ngokucophelela, inokutshizwa ngenkungu ukuze igcine umhlaba umanzi, akufanele unkcenkceshelwe kakhulu ukwenza umhlaba udibanise, oya kubangela ukusuleleka.

Ukusukela ngexesha lokugquma komhlaba malunga neentsuku ezisi-7 ukuya kwezili-10, kuyimfuneko ukulungisa ukufuma ukuya kwi-75% ukuya kwi-90%, ukunkcenkceshela umhlaba rhoqo yonke imihla.

Kuyimfuneko ukugcina umswakama ukususela ngexesha lomzimba wesiqhamo se-mushroom ebomvu ye-reishi iqala ukuvela kwisigqubuthelo somhlaba kude kube lixesha lokuvuna.

Ukubetha kancinci malunga ne-3 ukuya kumaxesha ama-4 ngosuku, ngokuxhomekeke kwiimeko zemozulu, ukhathalelo luhlala kude kube ngumzuzu i-ear fungus iqala ukuvelisa i-spores, emva koko uyeke ukunkcenkceshela kunye nenkungu malunga neentsuku ezili-10 ngaphambi kokuvuna.

Indlela yokugquma inceda ifungus ukuba likhule kakuhle kakhulu, kodwa lithatha indawo eninzi kwaye kulula kakhulu ukosulela, kuba ingxowa yembewu idibana ngqo nomhlaba.Ukuba umhlaba awuphathwa kakuhle, kusekho iibhaktheriya ezininzi ezibangela izifo.

Iifama ezininzi ukukhula amakhowa e-reishi abomvu eVietnam ungakhethi ukulima ngendlela yokugquma. Ixesha lokulima ukususela kumhla we-inoculation ye-mushroom embryo malunga neentsuku ezingama-70-90, kuxhomekeke kwiindidi kunye nexesha lokukhula elihlukeneyo.

Isikhokelo sokukhulisa iGanoderma lucidum

Ukukhulisa amakhowa ngaphandle komgquba

Indlela yokungavundisi:

Ngethuba leentsuku ezingama-25-30, xa i-mycelium idla i-3/4 yengxowa yembewu, qalisa ukusika isikhwama kunye nokunkcenkceshela, ukusuka kwiintsuku ezi-7 ukuya kwe-10 rhoqo amanzi emgangathweni ukugcina umswakama ukusuka kwi-80% ukuya kwi-90%. iqondo elithile lokungenisa umoya.

Uninzi lweefama ezibomvu ze-reishi mushroom eVietnam zihlala zisebenzisa le ndlela yokulima, kuba inceda ukugcina indawo yokulima, kunokwenzeka ukubeka iimbumba ze-mushroom ngendlela yokuxhoma iintambo okanye zibekwe phantsi, amakhowa akhula kakuhle. ngakumbi xa ubeka ingxowa efanayo yeembumba kwishelufu emile okwe-A.

Ixesha lokuvuna xa ama-mushroom eqala ukuvelisa i-spores malunga neentsuku ezili-10, emva koko ukuvuna, xa ama-mushroom esanda kuvelisa ama-spores, ayeke ukunkcenkceshela malunga neentsuku ezili-10.

Ukusebenzisa phezulu ukusika isiqu sefungus kwingcambu nge-antiseptic nge-lime, uze uqhubeke uhlakulela ixesha eli-1 ngokunyamekela okufanayo nasekuqaleni, izinga lesivuno sesigaba se-2 liya kuba liphantsi kunesigaba se-1.

Ngayo yonke i-3 kg yamakhowa e-reishi omisiwe, i-1 kg ye-reishi eyomileyo iya kufumaneka, kuzo zonke iingxowa ze-1000 ze-embryo zembewu, i-16 ukuya kwi-20 kg iya kufumaneka emva kokumisa, kuxhomekeke kumgangatho wembewu yembewu.

Ekupheleni kokulima, kuyimfuneko ukunyanga kunye nokucoca i-barn kunye ne-1% yoxinaniso lwe-formaldehyde.

Kuthatha malunga ne-1 ukuya kwi-3 iminyaka ukwakha ifama kunye nokulima, imo engqongileyo ejikeleze ifama iyosuleleka, ungcoliseko lubangela izifo zokungunda, izinga lesivuno alikho phezulu, ngoko ke kuyimfuneko ukushukuma kunye nokutshintsha indawo yokulima kube kanye. .

Emva kokuvuna ama-mushroom aya komiswa okanye omisiwe:

Ukuba iimeko zemozulu zimvula, kuyimfuneko ukusebenzisa i-oven ukomisa amakhowa kwiqondo lokushisa lama-35 ukuya kuma-40 degrees Celsius kwiiyure ezi-1 ukuya kwezi-4 xa ama-mushroom omile kwaye anzima, ngoko ukomisa kuphelile.

Kungcono ukomisa i-Ganoderma ebomvu ekukhanyeni kwelanga lendalo malunga neentsuku ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-3, kufuneka uyomise kakhulu ukuze xa ugcina ukuphepha ukubumba, ixesha lokulondoloza lide.

8, ukupakishwa Product

Emva kokumisa, ama-mushroom e-reishi abomvu kufuneka aphathwe nge-microorganisms kunye neebhaktheriya ngaphambi kokuba zipakishwe.

Ixesha lokugcinwa liyi-1-2 iminyaka ukuba ifakwe kwi-vacuum bag, xa usebenzisa ama-mushroom e-reishi ebomvu, sebenzisa izandla ezomileyo ukuze ususe ama-mushroom uze uvale isikhwama ukukhusela umswakama ukuba ungangeni.

Umthombo: thanhhoaquatestcert.gov.vn

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