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Phakathi kweepomelos ezimnandi nezidumileyo namhlanje, iipomelos zesikhumba eziluhlaza zihlelwa njengezidumileyo kwaye zinexabiso eliphezulu kakhulu, ngenxa yencasa yazo emnandi eyahlukileyo kunye nombala weziqhamo otsala amehlo. Ngoko ke indlela yokukhulisa ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo ngumxholo abantu abaninzi abanomdla kuwo kwaye bafuna ukuwakhulisela ishishini.

Ukuza kwinqaku lanamhlanje, uFoo uya kukukhokela imodeli yokutyala ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo kunye neendlela zokutyala, indlela yokukhula ukufikelela esona sivuno siphezulu kunye nomgangatho.

Iimeko ezifanelekileyo zokuphumeza ubuchule bokukhula kwepomelos yesikhumba eluhlaza

Ukuya Ukhula njani igrapefruit enesikhumba esiluhlaza kunye namathumbu apinki Ukuba uhlangabezana nemigangatho efanelekileyo, kufuneka uxhobise umthi ngezi zinto zilandelayo ukunceda umthi ukhule ngokukhawuleza kwaye uhambe kakuhle.

Indlela yokukhulisa ipomelo enesikhumba esiluhlaza

1. Ubushushu

Elona qondo lobushushu lifanelekileyo ukuba imithi yepomelo ikhule kwaye ikhule ukusuka ku 23 ukuya kuma 29oC.

2. Ukukhanya

Amandla okukhanya afanelekileyo alingana nokukhanya kwelanga kusasa ngentsimbi yesi-9.

3. Amanzi

Imithi ye-grapefruit eluhlaza ukuze ibe nempilo, idinga ukubonelelwa ngamanzi amaninzi, ngakumbi ngexesha leentyantyambo kunye nezigaba zeziqhamo, kodwa nazo azikwazi ukunyamezela ukuchithwa kwamanzi.

Ngexesha lembalela kunye neentsuku zemvula ngexesha lemvula, kuyimfuneko ukunkcenkceshela rhoqo ngomlinganiselo ofanelekileyo ukugcina ukukhula ngokukhawuleza kwezityalo. Ubutyuwa kumanzi okunkcenkceshela akufunekanga budlule kwi-0.2% (2g/litre yamanzi).

4. Umhlaba wokukhulisa iipomelos zolusu oluluhlaza

Umhlaba usetyenziselwa ukuphunyezwa Amacebo okukhulisa imithi yegrapefruit ukuze ibe luhlaza mayibe nobuncinci be-0.6 m ubukhulu bomaleko wokulima, ukukhanya okanye ukwakheka komatshini.

Umhlaba ukhululekile, unomoya kwaye une-drainage efanelekileyo, i-pH yamanzi iphakathi kwe-5.5 ukuya kwi-7, kunye ne-organic content malunga ne-3%, i-saline encinci, inqanaba lamanzi lingaphantsi kwe-0, 8m.

Indlela yokusasaza i-grapefruit eluhlaza

Indlela yokusasaza kwi Ubuchule bokutyala ipomelo yesikhumba esiluhlaza Okubaluleke kakhulu, ukuba i-propagation ilungile, umthi omtsha unokukhula unempilo kwaye kulula ukuwunyamekela kamva.

1. Ukusasazwa njani

a) Indlela yokwenza isebe

Umthi uvame ukuwa ngenxa yokungakhuli kakuhle kweengcambu, ezingahambelani nokukhula kwemithi yepomelo eluhlaza. Amanqaku okufuneka uwagcine engqondweni xa usika amasebe:

  • Zonke izixhobo ezisetyenziselwa ukukhupha amasebe kufuneka zibulawe iintsholongwane ngaphambi nangemva kokwenza umsebenzi wokukhutshwa kwisebe ngalinye.
  • Ukukhethwa kwe-cuttings akufanele kube kudala kakhulu, khetha kuphela amasebe kwiminyaka enesithukuthezi.
  • Imithi esetyenziselwa ukusika kufuneka ibekwimeko entle, isempilweni, ingabinazinambuzane nezifo, ngakumbi iGreening kunye neTristeza.

Iindlela zokukhulisa iipomelos zesikhumba esiluhlaza

b) Indlela yokudibanisa

I-coefficient yokuphindaphinda iphezulu, ithatha inzuzo ye-rootstock, umthi unokumelana kakuhle nokuwa, ukwandisa ixesha lokuphila, ugcina iimpawu ezintle zomthi wokuqala.

Ingcambu: Ungasebenzisa iintlobo zasekhaya, eziqhelekileyo, ezimuncu zepomelo ukuze uzisebenzise njengeengcambu zengcambu okanye ungasebenzisa ingcambu ye-honey orange ukuze wenze i-rootstocks kwicala lokuzinzisa umgangatho weentlobo ze-pomelo.

Amehlo amiliselwe, amasebe enqaba: Sebenzisa amagrafti acocekileyo, angosulelwanga agcinwe kwizindlu ezinetha ezikwaziyo ukuthintela amagqabi. Amasebe axhunyelelweyo atyekele malunga nombindi wesiqu, akhethwe ngokulinganayo ngokwezikhokelo kunye nezikhundla ze-canopy ukunciphisa umlinganiselo we-phenotypes engalunganga, musa ukuthatha i-grafts kumasebe angaphezulu kunye namasebe akhulileyo. .

c) Imigaqo yemithi yodidi lokuqala

Izityalo ezikhokelayo kufuneka zikhethe izityalo ezingenazifo, zinemvelaphi ecacileyo, zikwinqanaba lokukhula nokukhula kakuhle, azinazimpawu zokuhlaselwa kwaye zonakaliswe zizinambuzane nezifo, kwaye iziphumo zovavanyo azibikho kwezo zityalo.Izifo eziyingozi ezinjalo njengoko iTristeza kunye neGreening zinesivuno esizinzileyo kunye nomgangatho.

2. Imigangatho elungileyo yezithole

Imigangatho ebekiweyo ukuba ibandakanywe kumgangatho wezithole ezilungileyo idweliswe apha ngezantsi, nceda ukhethe izithole ezilungileyo oza kuzisa kuzo. indlela yokukhulisa ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo sebenza kakhulu.

  • Umthi kufuneka ufane ngqo nepomelo enesikhumba esiluhlaza, ekwazi ukukhula ngokusempilweni, kwaye ingosulelwa zizinambuzane nezifo.
  • I-Homogeneity kwiimpawu zofuzo kunye ne-morphological, umahluko akufanele udlule i-5%
  • Umphakamo womthi ukusuka kumphezulu wembiza kufuneka ube mkhulu kune-60cm, kunye namasebe ama-2 ukuya kwi-3 yebakala I.
  • Isiqu sengcambu silingana ne-10cm ukusuka kumphezulu wembiza: ukusuka ku-0.8 ukuya kwi-1cm
  • Ububanzi be-graft (kulinganiswa kwi-graft ye-2 cm) bukhulu kuno-0.7 cm

Indlela yokukhulisa ngokufanelekileyo ipomelo enesikhumba esiluhlaza

Nanga amanyathelo okuyenza indlela yokukhulisa ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo Ngeyona mveliso iphezulu, nceda ulandele le nkqubo ingezantsi.

1, Yila igadi yokukhulisa igrapefruit enolusu oluluhlaza

a, Ityala lomhlaba omtsha

Faka iindlela zokutyala i-pomelo enesikhumba esiluhlaza ngokugrumba imisele ukuya ebhedini ukukhulula ityuwa, i-alum kunye nokuphucula umaleko wokulima. Imijelo yegadi i-1 ukuya kwi-2 m ububanzi, kunye ne-6 ukuya kwi-8 m ububanzi.

Xa udala ukutyalwa, kufuneka kuqulunqwe kwicala laseNyakatho-South, imithi yepomelo enebala eliluhlaza iya kufumana ukukhanya okugcweleyo kunye nokufana okufanayo.

b, Ityala lomhlaba wakudala

Khetha indawo entsha oza kuyigubungela imodeli ekhulayo yepomelo enesikhumba esiluhlaza ukunqanda izitshabalalisi ezindala kunye nezifo kunye nokudala imeko-bume efanelekileyo ukunceda izityalo zikhule ngcono. Kwinqanaba lokuqala, kunokwenzeka ukugcina izityalo ezindala ukwenza uninzi, ukuzinzisa ingeniso, umthunzi wemithi yepomelo eluhlaza esandula ukutyalwa kunye nokuthintela ukhula.

c, Ukutyala imithi yokuthintela umoya

Ii-windbreaks zityalwe malunga negadi, nikela ingqalelo kwi-East kunye ne-Southwest directions, ungakhula i-hibiscus ende, imango okanye imithi yesundu ye-nipa.

2, Indlela yokukhulisa ipomelo enolusu oluluhlaza

Kwindlela yokukhulisa igrapefruit eluhlaza, iFao yahlulwe yangamanyathelo amancinci amaninzi, inyathelo ngalinye lihambelana nenqanaba, inqanaba ngalinye lifuna ukuba uzixhobise ngobuchule bokutyala kunye neendlela zokutyala ngokwemiyalelo kaFao.

a, Ixesha lokutyala

Ungakhula i-grapefruit eluhlaza unyaka wonke, kodwa kufanelekile indlela yokukhulisa ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo ekuqaleni kwexesha lemvula ukugcina umzamo wokunkcenkceshela, elona xesha lifanelekileyo livela ngoMeyi ukuya kuJuni minyaka yonke.

Ukongeza, ungatyala nasekupheleni kwexesha lemvula ukuba uneemeko zokunkcenkceshela ngokwaneleyo xa kufika ixesha elomileyo.

b, Khetha izithole oza kuzityala

Izithole kufuneka zikhethwe ukuhlangabezana nemigangatho yophuhliso, zingasulelwa zizinambuzane nezifo kwaye zibe neleyibhile okanye isatifikethi semvelaphi evela kwabasemagunyeni.

Ukuxinana kokutyala kunye nezithuba: Umyinge wokutyala iipomelos zesikhumba esiluhlaza yi-4 ukuya kwi-5m x 5 ukuya kwi-6m (okulingana nokuxinana kokutyala malunga ne-35 ukuya kwi-50 yemithi/1000m2).

d, Ukulungiswa kwezicubu kunye nendlela yokutyala

Umhlaba osetyenziswa njengethishu udla ngokuba ngumhlaba ongaphezulu wentsimi okanye umhlaba ongaselunxwemeni owomileyo. Umphezulu wezicubu kufuneka ube nobude obususela kwi-40 ukuya kwi-60cm, ububanzi ukusuka kwi-80 ukuya kwi-100cm.

Gcwalisa izicubu kwiiveki ezi-2 ukuya kwezi-4 phambi kokutyala, xuba umhlaba ukuze ugqume izicubu nge-10 kg yesichumiso esiphilayo kunye ne-200g yekalika. Xa kutyalwa, kuyimfuneko ukugrumba umngxuma embindini wethishu kwaye uchumise ezantsi komngxuma kunye nesixa se-200g yesichumisi seDAP (18%N ukuya kwi-46%P205), ugqume umphezulu ngocweyo lomhlaba. .

Iikhabhathi zeengcambu ezifumileyo Sebenzisa izitro ezomileyo ukugcina ukufuma ngexesha elomileyo ngexesha elomileyo. Xa kufika ixesha lemvula, ikhabhinethi kufuneka ibe yi-20cm ukusuka kwisiseko. Izityalo eziselula kufuneka zicocwe kulo lonke ukhula ukuthintela ukhuphiswano nesityalo ngezondlo.

Imodeli yokukhulisa i-pomelo enesikhumba esiluhlaza

e, Ukunkcenkceshela kunye nokukhupha amanzi

Ulusu oluluhlaza lweGrapefruit lufuna ukunkcenkceshelwa ngokwaneleyo, ngakumbi ngexesha lezithole kunye nexesha lokudumba. Ngexesha elomileyo, kuyimfuneko ukunkcenkceshela rhoqo nge-dose ephakathi kwi-pomelos. Ngexesha lemvula, kuyimfuneko ukukhupha amanzi kwiinyanga zemvula ukuze ugweme ukuchithwa kwamanzi ixesha elide okunokubangela ukuba umthi ufe ngokuthe ngcembe.

g, Izichumisi:

– Izichumisi ze-Organic: Indlela ephambili yokulima yangoku kukusebenzisa isichumiso esiphilayo kangangoko xa uvelisa iziqhamo ngendlela ecocekileyo. Idosi yesichumisi yi 15 ukuya kwi 30 kg/ngonyaka/umthi ovuthiweyo olunge kakhulu kwi pomelos, okonyusa kakhulu ubomi bomthi.

– Izichumisi ze-Inorganic: Izichumisi ze-Trichoderma zinefuthe lokunceda ukunciphisa izifo zefungal, ngakumbi izifo ezibangelwa yi-agent Phythophtora sp.

– Inqanaba lomthi wegrapefruit lineziqhamo ezizinzileyo: lingohlulwa libe ngamaxesha ama-5 esichumiso ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Emva kokuvuna: galela i 25% yenitrogen + 25% ye phosphorus ne 10 ukuya kwi 30 kg yezinto eziphilayo/ingcambu/ngonyaka.
  • Kwiiveki ezine phambi kokutyatyamba: faka i-25% yenitrogen + 50% yephosphorus kunye ne-25% ye potassium.
  • + Emva kokuqhama: faka i-25% yenitrogen + 25% yephosphorus kunye ne-25% ye potassium.
  • + Inqanaba lokukhula kweziqhamo: sebenzisa i-nitrogen eyi-25% kunye ne-25% ye-potassium.
  • + Kwinyanga enye ngaphambi kokuvuna: sebenzisa i-25% ye-potassium.

Musa ukutshiza isichumiso samagqabi ngexesha lemvula kuba senza ukuba izityalo zibe sesichengeni sezifo zokungunda ezifana neZilonda, uMngundo oPinki, kunye namachokoza okhula.

– Indlela yobuchule yobuchule yokuchumisa: Ukuba ugrumbe ngobunono ujikeleze isiseko ngokwentelekelelo yekhenopi, ububanzi bomsele bumalunga ne-30 ukuya kwi-40cm, emva koko faka isichumiso, ugqume ngomhlaba emva koko namanzi.

Musa ukugawula nzulu kakhulu njengoko kungonakalisa iingcambu. Isenokudityaniswa nentlenga yentlenga, ukugawula iingcambu ukuchumisa okanye ukusebenzisa iiharrows ukurhuqa umgquba ukunceda ukunciphisa ukophuka kweengcambu.

h, Ukuthena kunye nokudala i-canopy

Amacebo okukhulisa imithi ye grapefruit eluhlaza

Ukudala i-canopy: ngumsebenzi oyimfuneko kakhulu kwinkqubo yokuphunyezwa indlela yokukhulisa ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo kwaye kufuneka ingahoywa, oku kukwenza kunye nokukhulisa isiseko esiluqilima, esisisiseko sokukhulisa amagqabi omthi.

– Ukuthena: wenza lo msebenzi emva kokuvuna, kufuneka ususe la masebe alandelayo:

  • Amasebe avelisa iziqhamo (ahlala emfutshane kakhulu, kuphela malunga ne-10 ukuya kwi-15cm).
  • Amasebe ahlaselweyo, amasebe abuthathaka, amasebe angaphakathi kwi-canopy akakwazi ukuthwala isiqhamo
  • Amasebe axananazile, amasebe ajinga kakhulu ngexesha lokuthwala iziqhamo ukunqanda ukhuphiswano lwezakhamzimba ngesiqhamo.

Qaphela: Zonke izixhobo ezisetyenzisiweyo kufuneka zibulawe iintsholongwane ngokufudumeza ngedangatye okanye utywala obungama-70o ukuthintela usulelo xa usikwa okanye usikwa.

Unyango lweentyantyambo: Ulusu oluluhlaza lweGrapefruit aludingi kunyangwa kodwa lusenokudubula, nangona kunjalo, kwintyantyambo egxininisiweyo, inokuphathwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

– Unyango lweentyantyambo ngokudala imbalela: I-Grapefruit idinga ixesha elomileyo ukuze ikwazi ukwahlula ukuhluma kweentyatyambo. Kwiigadi ezinokulawula amanzi, kuyacetyiswa ukuba udale imbalela ukuze iipomelos zidubule ngaxeshanye.

– Unyango lweentyantyambo ngokuthatha ithuba lamagqabi kumasebe athwala iziqhamo: Ukusebenzisa le ndlela kunokunceda ukudubula kwamaxesha onyaka ahlukeneyo, kodwa kuzisa iziphumo ikakhulu kwimithi emitsha evelisa iziqhamo kwiminyaka embalwa yokuqala, xa umthi sele ukhulile. .ukukhula, amasebe athwala iziqhamo ezininzi, le ndlela ingasentla ayisasebenzi.

k, Ukuthena ngasekhohlo

Kwiqela ngalinye lasekhohlo, kufuneka ushiye kuphela ubuninzi beziqhamo ezingama-02, kungcono ukuba ugcine kuphela i-01 esele. Iipomelos ezityalwa xa isityalo sisencinci kufuneka sinqunywe. Ukuvuna kufuneka kuqhutywe xa ubudala bomthi ukususela ngexesha lokutyala i-pomelo enesikhumba esiluhlaza kufuneka ibe ubuncinane iinyanga ezingama-36.

l, I-ankile yasekhohlo

Kwinqanaba lokuvuna, xa ixabiso le pomelo liphantsi, ungaqhoboshela isiqhamo emthini ukusuka kwiintsuku eziyi-15 ukuya kweziyi-30 ukuze ulinde ukuthengiswa kwisihlandlo esilandelayo, indlela yokwenza oku kukutshiza umthi ngezichumisi zehlamvu ezifana : Gcina, ProGibb … okanye unokufaka isichumiso senitrogen eninzi kwaye unkcenkceshele rhoqo izityalo.

Ukuvuna

Ngokuqinisekileyo esi sesona sigaba ujonge phambili kuso kwixesha lokuphunyezwa indlela yokukhulisa ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo kunene.

1. Ixesha lokuvuna

Umthi weGrapefruit ukusuka kwixesha leentyantyambo ukuya ekuvuneni malunga neenyanga ezi-7 ukuya kwezi-8, kuxhomekeke kwixesha, ubudala bomthi kunye nesimo sophuhliso, njl. , umzantsi osekhohlo uthe tyaba kancinane yaye xa ucinezelwe ngesandla, uthambile, ekhohlo unzima.

2. Indlela yokuvuna

Sebenzisa isikere ukusika isiqhamo sonke, usisule sicoceke, uze usibeke kwingobozi ukuyigcina kwindawo epholileyo ukuze ulinde ukuhlenga-hlengisa, sula i-peel kunye nokuthutha kwindawo yokugcina kunye nokusetyenziswa.

3. Ukuphatha emva kokuvuna

-Inokutshiza i-2.4D ngogxininiso ukusuka kwi-10 ukuya kwi-40ppm ukuthintela ukomisa kunye nemeko yokuwa kwesiqu sasekhohlo.

– Tfutha iThiabendazole 40% diluted kugxininiso lwamaxesha angama-500 kwiveki e-1 ukuya kwezi-2 phambi kokuvuna, okanye cwina imizuzu emi-3 kanye emva kokuvuna.

– Tshiza i-Iminoctodine 25% exutywe amaxesha angama-2,000 ngeentsuku ezi-4 phambi kokuvuna okanye zifunxe imizuzu emi-3 kanye emva kokuvuna ukunciphisa ukonakaliswa.

4. Ugcino

Emva kokuvuna i-pomelo enolusu oluluhlaza okanye efakwe kwikhemikhali, shiya isiqhamo emthunzini iintsuku ezimbalwa ngaphambi kokuba usibeke kwingxowa yokugcina.

Ibhegi kufuneka ibenobukhulu obungange 0.02 ukuya ku 0.03mm, ingxowa nganye kufuneka igcine isiqhamo esinye kuphela. Ukuba ugcina ixesha elide, ifilimu ye-PE encinci kakhulu kufuneka isetyenziswe ukusonga isiqhamo.

Ngoko siye safunda malunga indlela yokukhulisa ulusu oluluhlaza pomelo kunye neendlela kunye neemodeli zokukhula kwepomelo. Ngeli nqaku, i-Fao inethemba lokuba unokukhulisa iigadi zakho eziluhlaza zepomelo, ufezekise imveliso, umgangatho kwaye ufumane umvuzo omkhulu kuzo. Umnqweno omhle.

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